Abstract The CIGRE DC grid test system is a multiterminal meshed HVDC grid developed jointly by CIGRE Working Groups B4.57 and B4.58. It was presented for the first time in 2013  aiming to become a reference benchmark system through which different research programs can be carried out. This paper describes the DIgSILENT PowerFactory model of the CIGRE DC Grid Test System and its parameters as provided by  for load flow studies. Results of the steady-state power flow are given and plots generated from the steady-state solution are shown as a guide for final users.
1 General Description The CIGRE DC grid test system consists of:
Two onshore AC systems: system A (busbars: A0 and A1), and system B (busbars: B0, B1, B2 and B3). Four offshore AC systems: system C (busbars: C1 and C2), system D (busbar: D1), system E (busbar E1) and system F (busbar F1). Three DC grids: DCS1 (± 200kV monopolar HVDC point-to-point link between busbars A1 and C1), DCS2 (± 200kV monopolar five-terminal DC grid with busbars B2, B3, B5, E1 and F1) and DCS3 (± 400kV bipolar eight-terminal DC grid with busbars A1, C2, D1, E1, B1, B4 and B2).
Eleven AC/DC converters which are the interface between the AC and DC grids. Five of them have bipolar configuration and the remaining six have monopolar configuration. Two DC/DC converters: Cd-E1, which enables a power exchange between 800kV and 400kV DC systems, and CdB1, which provides a connection between busbars B1 and E1.
Three different study cases have been implemented in DIgSILENT PowerFactory based on the CIGRE DC grid test system: “DCS1”, “DCS2” and “Full Test System”. In the study case “DCS1”, a simple DC system has been modelled, providing a suitable model to perform investigations about single point-to-point links. Figure 1 shows the single line diagram of this system in DIgSILENT PowerFactory. In the study case “DCS2”, the five-terminal DC system has been modelled, facilitating the study of a multi-terminal DC system. The single line diagram in DIgSILENT PowerFactory of this study case has been depicted in Figure 2. The study case “Full Test System” includes the complete model of the CIGRE DC grid test system, where more complex investigations about DC grids can be done. The single line diagram of this system in DIgSILENT PowerFactory is shown in Figure 3.
CIGRE B4.57 HVDC T EST SYSTEM GUIDE FOR T HE DEVELOPMENT OF HVDC GRID MODELS - Test System DCS2 -
Project: Example Graphic: DCS2 Date: 6/30/2016 Annex: 2
Figure 2: Single Line Diagram of “DCS2” in DIgSILENT PowerFactory
Tr_Cm-C1 AC C1-C2
Breaker Cm-A1 Generation A1
AC_Cb-D1 Conv_pos Cb-D1_pos
Bb_B4_neg DC A1-B4_neg
DC A1-B1_neg_1 Cd-B1 neg DC A1-B1_neg_2
Bm-B2_neg DC B2-B3_neg
AC_Cm-F1 Grid SPR_Cm-F1
O ut of C alculation D e-energised
V oltag e L evels 400 . k V 380 . k V 220 . k V 200 . k V 145 . k V 0.0 0 0 1 k V
CIGRE B4.57 DC TEST SYSTEM (Part I)
GUIDE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF HVDC GRID MODELS -Full Test System-
Project: Example Graphic: Full Test System Date: Annex:
Figure 3: Single Line Diagram of the “Full Test System” in DIgSILENT PowerFactory
2 Model Parameters The following subsections describe the network data used to set up the load flow model in DIgSILENT PowerFactory, extracted from . Parameters are included in Appendix A.
2.1 Loads System loads do not depend on voltage, the active and reactive power demand is constant. Please note that this is achieved by disabling the load option “Consider Voltage Dependency of Loads” in the DIgSILENT PowerFactory load flow calculation command. The load flow data used to configure the load elements in DIgSILENT (active power P and reactive power Q) listed in Table 1.
2.2 Generation and external AC systems The complete CIGRE DC Grid Test System include both offshore and onshore generation. Both types of generation are modelled as constant active and reactive power generation sources. Constant active and reactive power generation has been modelled by the DIgSILENT PowerFactory element “External Grid”. The interconnection between the represented AC systems and external AC systems has been modelled by Thevenin Voltage Source equivalents. In each study case, the Thevenin Voltage Source equivalents are in charge of the slack function in the corresponding busbars where they are connected. In the “DCS2” and “Full
Test System”, the slack function in the offshore AC systems is performed by the AC/DC converters. Parameters to set up the generation are given in  and listed in Table 2, 3 and 4. Active and reactive power dispatch values are entered for PQ generator type. Voltage magnitude and angle in the controlled terminals are provided for Thevenin Voltage Sources (slack type).
2.3 AC/DC Converter Stations AC/DC converter stations are composed by an external transformer and a converter based on VSC-MMC technology. Two different topologies have been defined in the CIGRE DC Grid Test System:
Both topologies are modelled as shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5.
Figure 5. Bipolar configuration
Load losses in transformers and converters are included in the system implemented in DIgSILENT PowerFactory. No-load losses, switching losses and auxiliary losses are not included in the model, but they can be added by the user. Transformer parameters used in each AC/DC station converter are provided in Table 8. AC/DC converter parameters are gathered in Table 9. AC/DC converter stations can be configured to control different parameters of the system such as power flows, voltages magnitudes and angles. The parameters controlled by each converter have been assigned according to  for each study case. Control modes of each AC/DC converter as well as their respective set points are given for each one of the three study cases in Tables 10, 11 and 12. Additional details about the configuration of AC/DC controllers in slack or droop mode are included in the next subsections. Voltage and angle control
Figure 4. Symmetrical monopole configuration
Please note that bipolar configuration requires a ground reference in the common busbar between the positive and negative busbars. This is achieved in DIgSILENT PowerFactory version 15.2 by using a DC voltage source configured with a voltage set point of 0 p.u.
The configuration of the AC/DC converters with slack function requires to take into account some details. Although AC/DC converters are able to control the voltage magnitude and angle in any AC busbar, this control is not always possible when in an AC system there are other elements which can perform this function, such as the DIgSILENT PowerFactory elements “External Grid” or “AC Voltage Source”.
The element “External Grid” can be configured as slack, PQ or PV type. To set AC/DC converters as slack controlling a remote busbar, an “External Station Controller” has to be defined. The “External Station Converter” allows to control the voltage magnitude in any AC busbar, avoiding the eventual conflict when an “External Grid” is connected to the same remote busbar. Under these circumstances, AC/DC converters cannot control directly the voltage angle in other AC busbar, except in their own AC terminal. As a result, every angle in the corresponding AC system will be shifted. This phase shift is not important since the same increment or decrement in the voltage angle is produced in every busbar of the AC system. In any case, the voltage angle value in the desired AC busbar can be achieved by shifting the reference angle in the own converter AC terminal with the opposite shifted angle. Voltage droop control The voltage droop control must be configured taking into account the branch where the power flow is controlled and the sign convention in DIgSILENT PowerFactory. In generator elements or AC/DC converters, the power flow is positive when it flows out of these elements and vice versa. However, in branch elements such as transformers or lines, the power flow is considered positive when it flows into the branch element at both ends and negative when it goes out from it at both ends. It is important to set the reference power flow used in the AC/DC converter according to the sign convention at the point where the power flow is controlled.
2.4 DC/DC Converter Stations DC/DC converter stations increase or reduce the voltage level in an ideal way, since losses are not included in the model. The DC/DC converter model in DIgSILENT PowerFactory behaves like a closed circuit in the diode flowing direction. In the opposite direction the model behaves as an open circuit. For this reason, it is necessary to take care during the connection of terminals so that the power flow circulates in both branches. DC/DC converters parameter values are given by  and listed in Table 7.
2.5 Transmission Lines Line parameters are presented in  and listed in Table 5 and Table 6. The line model used to represent the transmission lines is a lumped parameter pi-section model.
3 Model operation
The model is built in DIgSILENT PowerFactory version 15.2 and it is contained in the file “CIGRE B4.57 DC TEST SYSTEM (Part I).pfd”. Three grids are provided in the project corresponding to the three test systems. To access every system, the user can activate each study case. Three operation scenarios are defined and will be activated with every study case. The steady-state load flow is examined by executing the load flow calculation ( ). Both balanced and unbalanced calculations can be carried out for the study cases “DCS1” and “DCS2”, but only unbalanced calculation is available for the study case “Full Test System”. The three study cases contain pre-defined bar diagrams, to display the busbar voltage
magnitudes. The bar diagrams are presented in Figures 6, 7 and 8. The voltage magnitude of negative DC busbars is not included since they have the same voltage magnitude as their respective positive DC busbars, with opposite sign. The results of the DIgSILENT PowerFactory load flow calculation in each one of the three study cases are given in Appendix B.
5. References 
T. K. Vrana, Y. T. Yang, and D. Jovcic, “The CIGRE B4 DC grid test system,” Electra, vol. 270, pp. 10–19, Oct. 2013.
Cigré Working Group B4.57, Guide for the Development of Models for HVDC Converters in a HVDC Grid, vol. 604, no. December. 2014.
Figure 6: Load flow solution “DCS1” – Voltage magnitudes
Figure 7: Load flow solution “DCS2” – Voltage magnitudes
Figure 8: Load flow solution “Full Test System” – Voltage magnitudes
Table 5. Transmission lines Line AC A0-A1_1 AC A0-A1_2 AC B0-B1 AC B0-B2 AC B0-B3 AC B1-B3 AC B2-B3 AC C1-C2 DC A1-C1_neg DC A1-C1_pos DC A1-B1_neg_1 DC A1-B1_pos_1 DC A1-B1_neg_2 DC A1-B1_pos_2 DC A1-B4_neg DC A1-B4_pos DC A1-C2_neg DC A1-C2_pos DC B1-B4_neg DC B1-B4_pos DC B1x-E1_neg DC B1x-E1_pos DC B2-B3_neg DC B2-B3_pos DC B2-B4_neg_1 DC B2-B4_pos_1 DC B2-B4_neg_2 DC B2-B4_pos_2 DC B3-B5_neg DC B3-B5_pos DC B5-F1_neg DC B5-F1_pos DC C2-D1_neg DC C2-D1_pos DC D1-E1_neg DC D1-E1_pos DC E1-F1_neg DC E1-F1_pos
Line type AC OHL 380kV AC OHL 380kV AC OHL 380kV AC OHL 380kV AC OHL 380kV AC OHL 380kV AC OHL 380kV AC cable 145kV DC cable +/- 200kV DC cable +/- 200kV DC OHL +/- 400kV DC OHL +/- 400kV DC OHL +/- 400kV DC OHL +/- 400kV DC OHL +/- 400kV DC OHL +/- 400kV DC cable +/- 400kV DC cable +/- 400kV DC OHL +/- 400kV DC OHL +/- 400kV DC cable +/- 400kV DC cable +/- 400kV DC cable +/- 200kV DC cable +/- 200kV DC OHL +/- 400kV DC OHL +/- 400kV DC OHL +/- 400kV DC OHL +/- 400kV DC OHL +/- 200kV DC OHL +/- 200kV DC cable +/- 200kV DC cable +/- 200kV DC cable +/- 400kV DC cable +/- 400kV DC cable +/- 400kV DC cable +/- 400kV DC cable +/- 200kV DC cable +/- 200kV
Length 200 km 200 km 200 km 200 km 200 km 200 km 200 km 50 km 200 km 200 km 400 km 400 km 400 km 400 km 500 km 500 km 200 km 200 km 200 km 200 km 200 km 200 km 200 km 200 km 300 km 300 km 300 km 300 km 100 km 100 km 100 km 100 km 300 km 300 km 200 km 200 km 200 km 200 km
DC A1-C2_neg DC A1-C2_pos DC B1x-E1_neg DC B1x-E1_pos DC B2-B3_neg DC B2-B3_pos DC B2-B4_neg_1 DC B2-B4_neg_2 DC B2-B4_pos_1 DC B2-B4_pos_2 DC B3-B5_neg DC B3-B5_pos DC B4-B1_neg DC B4-B1_pos DC B5-F1_neg DC B5-F1_pos DC D1-C2_neg DC D1-C2_pos DC E1-D1_neg DC E1-D1_pos DC F1-E1_neg DC F1-E1_pos
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