TROPICAL MEDICINE JOURNAL ISSN : 2089-2136 Center for Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada in collaboration with Indonesian Society of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease (PETRI)
Volume 03, Number 02
CONTENTS 95 - 102
The Effects of Curcumin Against Dengue-2 Virus Based on Immunocytochemistry Technique Dewi Marbawati, Sitti Rahmah Umniyati
Risk Factors Analysis of Typhoid Fever Occurence of Inpatient in Kebumen Public Hospital in 2013 Rina Hudayani, Hari Kusnanto, Rizka Humardewayanti, Trisno Agung W
110 - 120 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Dengue Fever Transmission Among Urban and Periurban Residents of Dhaka City, Bangladesh Muhammad Sohel Rana, Mohammad Syaket Ahmed Shakil 121 - 127 Geographic Information System (GIS) for Dengue Research in Indonesia: A Review Adnanto Wiweko 128- 135
Risk Factors of Pneumonia Among Under Five Children in Purbalingga District, Central Java Province Ni Kadek Nira, Dibyo Pramono, Roni Naning
136 - 141 Factors Associated with Delayed Diagnosis Among Tuberculosis Patient in Kebumen District Edwin Sovvan Aritonang, Ning Rintiswati, Riris Andono Ahmad 142 - 148 Effication Test of Srikaya Seeds Extract (Annona squamosa L.) to Kill Aedes aegypti Larvae in Laboratory Eny Sofiyatun, Joko Malis Sunarno 149 - 154 Immune Response against Hepatitis B Virus after Vaccination among Low Birth Weight and Preterm Newborns: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Magelang District Central Java Muhardison, Hari Kusnanto, Nenny Sri Mulyani 155 - 165 Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-Alpha) and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Expression of Plasmodium berghei Infected Swiss Mice Treated with Red Fruit (Pandanus Conoideus Lam) Ethanol Extract Demianus Tafor, Achmad Djunaidi, Widya Wasityastuti, Eti Nurwening Sholikhah 166 - 175 Validity of p-LDH/HRP2-Based Rapid Diagnostic Test for the Diagnosis of Malaria on Pregnant Women in Maluku Vebiyanti, E. Elsa Herdiana Murhandarwati, Bambang Udji Jokorianto 176 - 183 Comparing the Sensitivity and Specificity of Zinc Sulphate Flotation Method to Formol Ether Sedimentation Method in Identifying Intestinal Protozoa’s Cysts Dini Alyani, Elsa Herdiana Murhandarwati, Sri Sumarni, Ernaningsih 184 - 195 The Effect of Anticoagulant in Blood Meal Source on the Aedes aegypti Reproductive Ability in Laboratory Novyan Lusiyana, Budi Mulyaningsih, Sitti Rahmah Umniyati
TMJ Vol. 03 No. 2 121 - 127
Adnanto Wiweko, Geographic Information System (GIS) for Dengue Research in Indonesia: A Review
Geographic Information System (GIS) for Dengue Research in Indonesia: A Review Adnanto Wiweko¹ 1 Department of Public Health, University of Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia Correponding author: [email protected]
ABSTRACT Introduction: Geographic information system (GIS) can be very effective tool in combating dengue infection. However, there is only few study that apply GIS in dengue research in Indonesia Objectives: The purpose of this literature review is to identify how geographic information system (GIS) applications have been used in dengue mapping in Indonesia and to critically examine the issues, strengths, weakness and challenges inherent to those approaches, especially from the spatial analysis and public health point of view. Methods: The research articles in English or Indonesian were taken by online only using Google Scholar search engine. Only articles that addressed GIS methodology or dengue–related GIS applications were selected for this review. These articles must contain the combination three words including Geographic Information System (GIS), dengue and Indonesia in its titles or abstracts. Results: Through the review process, conducted in October 2013, it is evident that the applications of GIS in dengue research can be generally categorized into four issues including dengue risk mapping and surveillance (n = 5), combined remote sensing-GIS (n = 4) web application (n = 2), and climatic and other associated factor with dengue (n = 3). This review explores how GIS approaches have been used to analyze the correlation of dengue incidences with environmental risk factor. GIS also used as a tool to improve dengue surveillance and outbreak management. This review also revealed the lack of GIS techniques using in Indonesian dengue research. Conclusion: GIS-related methodological techniques and tools can be meaning fully applied in dengue research and management. Keywords: Geographic Information System (GIS), dengue, Indonesia
INTISARI Pendahuluan: Sistem informasi geografis (Geographic Information System/GIS) dapat menjadi alat yang sangat efektif dalam menanggulangi infeksi dengue. Namun, hanya sedikit yang menggunakan GIS dalam penelitian dengue di Indonesia Tujuan: Tujuan dari tinjauan pustaka ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi bagaimana aplikasi sistem informasi geografis (GIS) telah digunakan dalam pemetaan dengue di Indonesia dan untuk memeriksa secara kritis isu-isu, kekuatan, kelemahan dan tantangan yang terjadi akibat pendekatan-pendekatan tersebut, terutama dari pandangan analisis spasial dan kesehatan masyarakat.
TMJ Vol. 03 No. 2 121 - 127
Metode: Artikel penelitian dalam bahasa Inggris atau Indonesia diambil secara online hanya menggunakan mesin pencari Google Scholar. Hanya artikel yang membahas metodologi GIS atau aplikasi GIS yang terkait dengan dengue dipilih untuk artikel review. Artikel-artikel ini harus memiliki kombinasi tiga kata yaitu Sistem Informasi Geografis (GIS), demam berdarah dan Indonesia dalam judul atau abstrak. Hasil: Melalui proses review yang dilakukan pada bulan Oktober 2013, aplikasi GIS dalam penelitian dengue secara umum dapat dikategorikan ke dalam empat hal yaitu pemetaan risiko dan pengawasan dengue (n = 5), kombinasi penginderaan jauh-GIS (n = 4), aplikasi web (n = 2), dan iklim dan faktor lain yang terkait dengan dengue (n = 3). Artikel review ini mengeksplorasi bagaimana pendekatan GIS digunakan untuk menganalisis hubungan insiden DBD dengan faktor risiko lingkungan. GIS juga digunakan sebagai alat untuk meningkatkan survailans dengue dan manajemen wabah. Artikel ini juga mengungkapkan kurangnya penggunaan teknik GIS dalam penelitian dengue Indonesia. Simpulan: Teknik dan alat metodologis yang terkait dengan GIS dapat sepenuhnya diterapkan dalam penelitian dan manajemen dengue. Kata Kunci: Sistem Informasi Geografis (GIS), demam berdarah, Indonesia, review
INTRODUCTION Dengue infection (both of dengue fever/DF and dengue hemoragic fever/DHF) is a significant and emerging health problem in Indonesia and other tropical countries. Dengue fever and the more lethal dengue hemorrhagic fever are mosquito-borne diseases1 . They are caused by flavivirus that is transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes1. Two fifths of the world’s populations are at risk. Dengue vectors can breed in any small amount of water such as vases, flower pots, discarded containers, or used tires2 . As a vector borne disease, dengue infection depends on environment factor1. So it becomes importance to study the disease and other related factor to help health officer make decisions to reduce the incidence and severity of its outbreaks. Geography and studies of human health and well-being have a long history3 . A classic example of the value of a geographically orientated in health studies is John Snow’s study of mapping the outbreak of cholera in London
in the mid-19th century that revealed a clustering around a water pump3. GIS or Geographic Information System is a geographic tool that can be applied to gain insight into the relationships between health outcomes and social, demographic, economic, and ecological variables4. GIS can be used to complement conventional ecological monitoring and modeling techniques, and provide means to portray complex relationships in the ecology of disease5. In addition, the use of GIS to identify environmental features allows determination of risk factors and delimitation of areas at risk, permitting more rational allocation of resources for cost-effective control. Since 1996, GIS have been used in our territorial cross-sectional and longitudinal parasitological surveys in order to experiment new applications to plan sampling protocols and to display quickly, clearly, and analytically the spatial and/or temporal distribution of parasitological data5. In theory, GIS can be an effective tool in combating dengue infection, however, in
Adnanto Wiweko, Geographic Information System (GIS) for Dengue Research in Indonesia: A Review
practice there are many challenges to its successful use in Indonesia. The focus of this review is to provide some balance discussion about using GIS in dengue research in Indonesia. A review of this type is needed because much of the literature in this area is written by health or geography researcher only, without collaborate each other. The purpose of this paper is to identify how GIS applications have been used in dengue research in Indonesia and to critically examine the issues, strengths, weakness and challenges inherent to those approaches, especially from the spatial analysis and public health point of view. This paper is not to suggest that GIS technology should be used or not be used in dengue research, but to provide some balance by discussing the strength and limitations of GIS in Indonesian context.
Materials and Methods Searching strategies and databases searched This review consisted of a search of online published literature in the English and Indonesian language. Databases were searched using keywords contained in the title, abstract, or descriptor terms. The research article was taken by online only using Google Scholar search engine. The search was restricted to studies reported in English or Indonesian-language journals or reports or other publication and indexed with the keyword strategy outlined in Table 1. Databases that were searched included journal web, university database and government office. References within identified articles were reviewed for further studies.
Table 1. Set search terms used in this review
Inclusion/exclusion criteria Only articles that addressed GIS methodology or dengue–related GIS applications were selected for this review. Each included study had to have: 1) primary research, not article; 2) research that conducted in Indonesia; 3) GIS as a measurement and/or analysis tool and/or
application; 4) at least one variable related to the dengue or its vector. The search and review process conducted in October 2013 Systematic review process The numbers of references searched from Google Scholar database. After reviewing and removing duplicates, references were found of
TMJ Vol. 03 No. 2 121 - 127
which 31 were identified following the screening of titles and abstracts. Ultimately, 13 published studies were included in this review. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION There were 8 articles in Indonesian language and 5 article in English that contain the combination of three words i.e. Geographic Information System (GIS), dengue and Indonesia in its titles or abstracts. These articles were organized into categories based on the main type of application reported including dengue risk mapping and surveillance (n = 5), combined remote sensing-GIS (n = 4) web application (n = 2), and climatic and other associated factor with dengue (n = 3). One article organized into 2 categories because contains two type application of GIS 6. DENGUE RISK AREA MAPPING There are 5 research using GIS to model dengue risk area. All of them used scoring and overlay. They scored environmental factor and overlay this into dengue incidences map. High risk area represent by high score. The environment parameter always used in their research were population density, land use, drainage condition, settlement pattern6,7,8,9 . Another parameter was dengue incidences/ reporting cases. Additional parameter was used by Sumunar 6 , Widiyani7 , and Widiantoro8 . Widiyani 7 explored about the condition and cleaning water vessel activity related to dengue incidences. Community waste collecting pattern as dengue risk factor parameter was also used in this study. The other additional parameter used Sumunar 6 was rainfall. Different approach was taken by Widiantoro 8, by using larva and protective factor parameter to developed dengue risk area map. Despite almost all research in this categories focused on dengue risk area mapping, Apiadsa9
moved forward by using GIS- dengue risk area map to assisted dengue outbreak management in Magelang. Perdana10 also have different approach by exploring how GIS can help dengue surveyor officer. COMBINED GIS-REMOTE SENSING DENGUE MAPPING There are 4 researches using combined GISremote sensing technique to study dengueenvironment correlation. The 3 researches used satellite image and one research used airplane image (foto udara). Apiadsa9 and Ruliansyah11 shown how Quickbird, a very high resolution satellite image can be used as environmental data in GIS-dengue mapping. Kiang2 using ARIMA to model the dengue cases in Jakarta, Indonesia using TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission) data and dew point temperature. TRMM is low resolution satellite image. In other hand, Sumunar6 used airplane image as a data source of her GIS-dengue mapping. Integration of remote sensing imagery and GIS used to analyze physical environmental risk factors associated with dengue such as land use, altitude, rainfall, settlement and mosquito flying area2 . The research showed that remote sensing image is useful technique to determine physical environment factor related to dengue WEB APPLICATION OF GIS-DENGUE MAPPING There are only 2 researches on Web application of GIS in dengue research. Hidayatullah12 developed a simple web GIS– dengue risk area in Tegalrejo, Yogya. A simple information map model not only for health officer but also for residences in that area was proposed. Kusnanto13 developed a Web-based integrated DHF surveillance in Sleman. This model has made to assist dengue surveillance by health officer.
Adnanto Wiweko, Geographic Information System (GIS) for Dengue Research in Indonesia: A Review
CLIMATIC AND OTHER FACTOR ASSOCIATED WITH DENGUE There are only 3 researches in this category. Two research used GIS methodology to correlation between dengue and climatic factor 14,15. Astutik14 shown the correlation between DHF incidences and rainfall in East Java Province. She also offered 3 model spatiotemporal correlations between DHF incidences and rainfall. Bangs et al. 15 shown that an ENSOdriven increase in ambient temperature had a marked influence on increased dengue virus transmission by the vector population. He also explored the associations of entomological and climatic effects that precipitated the epidemic before the influx of reported human cases. Nagao 16 used GIS to determine geography factor of socio economic that affect DHF Patient in Surabaya He also found that age and socio economic factor affect the mosquito abundance are the most important determinant of the mean age of DHF’s patient There are two interrelated components of disease–GIS research. First is disease mapping and the second is disease modeling. Disease mapping is used to understand the geographical distribution and spread of disease in the past or present17,18. Disease modeling extends the disease-mapping application to (a) predict the future spread of disease, (b) identify factors that may foster or inhibit disease transmission, (c) pinpoint high-risk areas for disease prevention or intervention, (d) target control efforts, (e) identify gaps, and (f) increase stimulus for data collection in these areas 17,18. Many factors are known to contribute to dengue transmission, including environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and meteorological conditions. Among these factors, meteorological and environmental factors are
perhaps the most noticeable. For example, dengue transmission may increase with the arrival or the end of a rainy season, and lack of sanitation settlement2 . Temperature, humidity and rainfall are the important environmental determinants for dengue transmission2. However, there are only few research in Indonesia focused in this area. There is only one research on dengue mapping process by a geographer10. Most of the researcher studied GIS-dengue mapping is public health expert or post graduate students so they only studied by plotting incidence to area map. This is the most basic application and involves mapping the incidence/prevalence of dengue over some geographic area2 . The focus is on examining past trends as well as the present situation and typically does not include any statistical analysis with the possible exception of correlating dengue incidence/prevalence with population in order to calculate populations at risk. The purpose of these studies is to see the patterns of disease2 . GIS overlay technique were used in almost all research, but only 2 researches used additional technique (buffering and clustering)6,11 . There are only 2 researches studied on mapping of relationships between dengue incidence/prevalence and other related variables14,15. The timeframe is still on past trends and the present situation. The goal of these studies is to see if any relationships exist between dengue incidence/prevalence and a host of other variables including temperature14,15, rainfall 14,15, land use/land cover6,7,8,11 , breeding sites8,15 and control programs9. In most cases these studies involve testing to see if any statistical relationships exist.
TMJ Vol. 03 No. 2 121 - 127
Astutik14 has shown a different approach by using complex statistical method modelling, but very difficult to be implemented by health officer in the field. This literature is future-oriented and focuses on predicting areas of dengue risk. Risk models typically use many of the same variables discussed above, but the difference being that statistical relationships are established between dengue incidence/prevalence (the dependent variables) and a range of independent variables in an effort to predict future cases of dengue Because data collection is one of the major limitations of using GIS, innovative ways of collecting data are critical to the success of GIS. For the most part, this literature deals with remote sensing in the form of aerial photography7 and satellite imagery2,11 The lack of GIS- dengue research in Indonesia showed they are many challenges in GIS- dengue research development. The challenges in using GIS for dengue research can be organized in three parts 2,5. The first relates to basic data. Without adequate data, GIS is not very useful. The problems include accurate data on the disease and how it is reported, basic environmental data on land uses, topography, rainfall and demographic data of people. The second relates to technology – specifically computer hardware, GIS software, human resources and training. Based on these data, the biggest problem is only few university have GIS related health expert. This is shown by the fact that 2 of 3 GIS-dengue researches were from Yogyakarta. The third area concerns in methodology development, how can GIS be used to improve our understanding of dengue? As noted, there is no standard methodology in spatial statistical analysis 2.
There are two potential research areas in GIS- dengue research in Indonesia. They are Disease mapping, especially in geodatabase, GIS assisted surveillance, limited resources GIS mapping and web disease mapping and Disease modeling extends, especially in spread of disease prediction, pinpoint high-risk areas for disease prevention or intervention, target control efforts, identifying gaps and simple model with limited resources. CONCLUSION This review explores how GIS approaches have been used to analyze the correlation of dengue incidences with environmental determinants. GIS also used as a tool to improve dengue surveillance and outbreak management. This review revealed the lack of GIS techniques using in Indonesian dengue research. REFERENCES 1. Sutaryo. Dengue. First edition, Yogyakarta: Medika Universitas Gadjah Mada, 2004. 2. Kiang RK, Soebiyanto RP. Mapping the risks of malaria, dengue and influenza using satellite data. Proceeding of the International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XXXIX-B8, 2012. 3. Rinaldi L, Cascone C, Sibilio G, Musella V, Taddei R, Cringoli Geographical Information Systems and remote sensing technologies in parasitological epidemiology. Parasitologia. 2004 Juni;46(1-2):71-4. 4. Jerret M, Gale S, Kontgis C Spatial Modeling in Environmental and Public Health Research. International Journal of Environmental Research Public Health. Apr 2010; 7(4):1302-29.
Adnanto Wiweko, Geographic Information System (GIS) for Dengue Research in Indonesia: A Review
5. Sipe NG, Dale P. Challenges in using geographic information systems (GIS) to understand and control malaria in Indonesia. Malaria Journal 2003; 2: 36. 6. Suryo Sumunar. Penginderaan jauh dan system informasi geografis untuk perkiraan kejadian luar biasa penyakit demam berdarah dengue di kota Yogyakarta, 2008. 7. Widayani P. Pemodelan spasial epidemiologi demam berdarah dengue menggunakan system informasi geografis di Kelurahan Terban Kecamatan Gondokusuman Kotamadya Yogyakarta (Tesis) Environment Science Universitas Gadjah Mada, 2004. 8. Widiyantoro Y, Studi epidemiologi dan analisis spasial kejadian demam berdarah dengue menggunakan system informasi geografis di Kecamatan Bajawa Kabupaten Ngada Nusa Tenggara Timur (Tesis) Environment Science Universitas Gadjah Mada, 2012. 9. Apiadsa A, Pemanfaatan citra Quick bird untuk pemodelan spasial prioritas penanganan kejadian luar biasa Demam Berdarah Dengue (KLB DBD) di kota Magelang. (Skripsi) Faculty of Geography Universitas Gadjah Mada. 10. Perdana A, The Use of GIS (Geodatabase) in Combating Dengue Fever in Indonesia Phase II Project (Study Site: The City of Yogyakarta). Proceeding of Map World Forum; 2009 Feb 13; HICC, Hyderabad India. 11. Ruliansyah A, Gunawan T, Pemanfaatan Citra Penginderaan jauh dan system Informasi geografis untuk pemetaan daerah rawan demam berdarah dengue (Studi Kasus di Kecamatan Pangandaran Kabupaten Ciamis, Provinsi Jawa Barat) (Tesis) Universitas Gadjah Mada, 2011. 12. Hidayatulloh AF, Mulyanto A, Ulfah M Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Geografis untuk
penanganan penyebaran demam berdarah (studi kasus Puskesmas Tegalrejo Yogyakarta (Skripsi) Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi UIN Sunan Kalijaga, 2011. Kusnanto H, Sunartono FA. Web-based integrated DHF surveillance system in Sleman district Yogyakarta Indonesia. [cited 2011 Nov 25]. Available from: URL: http:// www.amic.org. sg/ict/external/awar ds/ 0402A5L48_Interim_ Report1.pdf. Astutik S, Rahayudi B, Iskandar A, Fitriani R. Bayesian Spatial-Temporal Autologistic Regression Model on Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in East Java, Indonesia. Applied Mathematical Sciences, 2013;7(9). Bangs MJ, Larasati RP, Corwin AL, Wuryadi S Climatic factors associated with epidemic dengue in Palembang, Indonesia: implications of short-term meteorological events on virus transmission. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 2006;37(6). Nagao Y, Rachmie EM, Padmidewi MM, Kuntarianto, Kawabata M. Geographical association between socioeconomics and age of dengue haemorrhagic fever patients in Surabaya, Indonesia.Dengue Bulletin, 2011;35. Myers MF, Rogers DJ, Cox J, Flahault A, & Hay SI.Forecasting disease risk for increased epidemic preparedness in public health. In: Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems in Epidemiology (Advance Parasitology). Elsevier, 2000;47:309-30 Robinson TP. Spatial statistics and geographical information systems in epidemiology and public health In: Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems in Epidemiology (Advance Parasitology). Elsevier, 2000;47:81-128.
Tropical Medicine Journal PAU Building Jl. Teknika Utara, Barek, Yogyakarta 55281 0274-588483, email: [email protected] Published by Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Instructions to the Authors Tropical Medicine Journal is a journal devoted to the publication of original articles in all field of basic, tropical medicine and tropical medical biotechnology.
consent from subjects for articles involving human subjects.
This journal is a journal in tropical medical sciences that usedas the media forndisseminationof original research, innovative, ideas and new hypotheses in biomedicine, both for medical development, education and application. It also welcomes perspectives articles, biomedical history abriged articles, and reviews. Statements and opinions expressed in the articles herein are those of author(s) responsibility and not necessary those of the Editor(s), the Faculty of Medicine, or Universitas Gadjah Mada.
Upon submission, the author should provide one cover letter. In the covering letter, authors should suggest names and addresses (including e-mail) of at least three experts in the field for evaluation of article. The choice of referees will however remain with the editorial board.
Tropical Medicine Journal is published in June and December by the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada.
Submission of papers Articles shoul be submitted in both hard copy and soft copy forms or in electronic form through emails as attachment to: The Editor-in-Chief, Tropical Medicine Journal, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Phone: 0274-588483, Fax: 0274-588483 E-mail: [email protected] Basic requirements for articles submitted to Tropical Medicine Journal are: a) original work; b) have not been previously published and not under consideration for publication elsewhere and if accepted will not be published elsewhere; c) should have obtained approval from the Ethics Committee; d) must obtained signed informed
Language Tropical Medicine Journal will publish the articles in English. Editors encourage authors to submit their articles in English. Even so, when a language barrier is encountered, editors allow authors to submit their article in Bahasa Indonesia and it will be translated in English by in-house translator.
Typescripts Articles should be neatly typed in Times New Roman, 12 pt, double-spaced on A4 format with 3 cm on all margins. Receipt of papers will be acknowledged. Authors will be informed of the referee’s comments.
Article types Three types of articles may be submitted: a) Original research article (maximum: 25 pages, 35 references); b) Review article (maximum: 40 pages, 100 references); c) Case Report article (maximum: 10 pages, 20 references)
Proofs and Reprints Proofs of manuscript will be sent to the author for approval prior to publication. Page proofs are considered to be the final version of the manuscript. With the exception of typographical or minor clerical errors, no changes will be made in the manuscript at the proof stage. Corrections should be returned to the Editor within one week. Authors of accepted article will receive 10 free off prints of their articles and can place order for additional off prints or hard copy of the journal after the acceptance of the articles.
Copyright Submission of an article for publication implies to the transfer of the copyright from the author(s) to the publisher upon acceptance. Accepted articles become the permanent property of Tropical Medicine Journal and may not be reproduced by any means without the written consent of the Editor-in-Chief.
Manuscript preparation The format of the typescript should be as follows: a. Title and authors: The title should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the article. The title page should include the author’s full names and affiliation that marked Arabic number. The name of the corresponding author should be indicated with postal adresse, phone, fax and e-mail information. b. Abstract: The author should provide two abstract, in Indonesian and English language. All articles should be provided with an sbstract of between 200-300 words in one spacing. The abstract should be written in simple language with structured abstract style. Abstract should describe of the study using below headings: Introduction, Objectives, Methods, Results and Discussion, and Conclusion. Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided.
c. Keywords: A maximum of 5 keywords must be given at the end of the abstract. d. Introduction : The Introduction should provide the problem statement clearly, the relevant literature on the subject, and the proposed approach or solution. e. Materials and methods: The materials and methods should be clear enough to allow experiments to be reproduced. Previously published research procedure should be cited, and important modifications of it should be mentioned briefly. If the conducted research involved the use of human subjects or animal laboratory, it should be stated that the clearance from the Research Ethics Committee was obtained. The Editor may request a copy of the clearance document or informed consent form for verification. f. Results and Discussion: The Results should be presented with clarity and precision and explained without referring to the literature. The original and important findings should be stated. The Results should be illustrated with figures or tables where necessary but these should be kept to the minimum. The Discussion should interpret the findings in view of the results obtained against the background of existing knowledge. The Discussion should highlight what is new in the paper. Any assumption on which conclusions are made must be stated clearly g. Conclusions: State the Conclusions in a few sentences at the end of the paper. h. Acknowledgments: The Acknowledgments should be presented at the end of the text and before the references. Technical assistance, financial support and advice may be acknowledged. i. Tables: The tables should be kept to a minimum and be designed to be as simple as possible. Each table should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and supplied
with a heading and a legend. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. Figure: The figures should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high resolution GIF, TIFF, JPEG or Powerpoint before pasting in the Microsoft Word manuscript file. The figures should be constructed in such a manner that they can be understood without reading the text. Appropriate symbols should be used on graphs and explained in the legends. Graphs should not duplicate results presented in tables. Title and comments of the figures and photographs should be provied on separate page using MS Word. References: References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text (Vancouver style). Identify references by Arabic number as superscript in order of appearance. A number must be used even if the author(s) is named in the text. The original nurmber assigned to the reference is reused each time the reference is cited in the text, regarless of its provious position in the text. For example : .......... it has been reported1 .......... .......... according to Sardjito2 .......... .......... Winstein & Swartz 3 conducted .......... .......... by Avon et al.4 .......... Authors are responsible for the accuracy and the completeness of their references. References should be listed numerically (Vancouver style) at the end of the text and in the same order that they have been cited in the text. For citation references with six or less authors, all authors should be listed, when seven or more authors only first three authors should be listed followed by et al. Journal names are abbreviated according to Index Medicus and Index of Indonesia Learned Periodicals (PDIN 1974). References to journal articles, books, chapters in books, theses, etc. should be listed as given in Sample References.
Sample References Scientific Journal 1. Standard journal article You CH, Lee KY, Chey RY, Menguy R. Electrogastro-graphic study of patients with unexplained nausea, bloating and vomiting. Gastroenterology 1980; 79(2):311-14. Goate AM, Haynes AR, Owen MJ, Farral M, James LA, Lai LY, et al. Predisposing locus for Alzheimer’s disease on chromosome 21. Lancet 1989;1:352-55. 2. Organization as author The Royal Marsden Hospital Bone-marrow Transplantation. Team. Failure of syngeneic bone-marrow graft without preconditioning in post-hepatitis marrow aplasia. Lancet 1977;2:742-44. 3. No author given Coffee drinking and cancer of the pancreas [editorial]. BMJ 1981;283-628. 4. Article not in English Massone L, Borghi S, Pestarino A, Piccini R, Gambini C. Localisations palmaires purpuriques de la dermatite herpetiforme. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1987;114:1545-47. 5. Volume with supplement Magni F, Rossoni G, Berti F, BN-52021 protects guinea-pig from heart anaphylaxis. Pharmacol Res Commun 1988;20 Suppl 5:75-78. 6. Issue with supplement Gardos G, Cole JO, Haskell D, Marby D, Paine SS, Moore P. The natural history of tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1988;8(4 Suppl):31S-37S. 7. Volume with part Hanly C. Metaphysics and innateness: a psychoanalytic perspective.Int J Psychoanal 1988;69(Pt 3):389-99. 8. Issue with part Edwards L, Meyskens F, Levine N. Effect of oral isotretinoin on dysplastic nevi. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989;20(2 Pt 1):257-60.
9. Issue with no volume Baumeister AA. Origins and control of stereotyped movements. Monogr Am Assoc Ment Defic 1978; (3):353-84. 10. No issue or volume Danoek K. Skiing in and through the history of medicine. Nord Midicinhist Arsb 1982;86100. 11. Pagination in roman numerals Ronne Y. Ansvarfall. Bloodtransfusion till fel patients. Vard-facket 1989;13:XXVI-XXVII. 12. Type of article indicated as needed Spargo PM, Manners JM, DDAVP and open heart surgery [letter]. Anaesthesia 1989;44: 363-64. Fuhrman SA, Joiner KA. Binding of the third component of complement C3 by Toxoplasma gondii [abstract]. Clin Res 1987; 35:475A. 13. Article containing retraction Shishido A. Retraction notice: Effect of platinum compounds on murine lymphocyte mitogenesis [Retraction of Alsabti EA, Ghalib ON, Salem MH. In: Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1979; 32:53-65). Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1980;33:235-37. 14. Article retracted Alsabti EA, Ghalib ON, Salem Mh. Effect of platinum compounds on murine lymphocyte mitogenesis [Retracted by Shishido A. In: Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1980;33:235-7]. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1979;32:53-65. 15. Article containing comment Piccoli A, Bossatti A. Early steroid therapy in IgA neuropathy: still open question [comment]. Nephron 1989;51:289-91. 16. Article in comment Kobayashi Y, Fujii K, Hiki Y, Tateno S, Kurokawa A, Kamiyama M. Steroid therapy in IgA nephropathy: a retrospective study in heavy proteinuric cases [see comments]. Nephron 1988;48:12-7. Comment in: Nephron 1989;51:289-91. 17. Article with published erratum Schofield A. The CAGE questionnaire and psychological health [published erratum
appears in Br J Addict 1989;84:701]. Br J Addict 1988;83:761-64.
Books and Other Monographs 18. Personal author(s) Colson JH, Armour WJ. Sports injuries and their treatment. 2nd rev. ed. London: S. Paul, 1986. 19. Editor(s) as author Diener HC, Wilkinson M, editors. Druginduced headache. New York: SpringerVerlag, 1988. 20. Organization(s) as author Virginia Law Foundation. The medical and legal implications of AIDS. Charlottesville: The Foundation, 1987. 21. Chapter in a book Winstein L, Swartz MN. Pathologic properties of invading microorganisms. In: Sodeman WA Jr, Sodeman WA, editors. Pathologic Physiology, mechanisms of disease. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1974:457-72. 22. Conference proceedings Vivian VL, editor. Child abuse and neglect: a medical community response. Proceedings of the First AMA National Conference or Child Abuse and Neglect; 1984 Ma 30-31; Chicago. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1985. 23. Conference paper Harley NH. Comparing radon daughter dosimetric and risk models. In:Gammage RB, Kaye SV, editors. Indoor air and human health. Proceedings of the Seventh Life Sciences Symposium; 1984 Oct 29-31; Knoxville (TN). Chelsea (MI):Lewis, 1985:69-78 24. Scientific or technical report Akutsu T. Total heart replacement device. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health. National Heart and Lung Institute; 1974 Apr. Report No.:NIH-NIHI-69-2185-4. Disertasi Youssef NM. School adjustment of children with congenital heart disease [dissertation]. Pittsburg (PA): Univ. of Pittsburg, 1988.
25. Dissertation Kay JG. Intracellular cytokine trafficking and phagocytosis in macrophages [Dissertation]. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland; 2007. 26. Patent Harred JF, Knight AR, McIntyre JS, inventors. Dow Chemical Company, assignee. Epoxidation process. US patent 3,654,317, 1972 Apr 4.
Other Published Material 27. Newspaper article Resberger B, Specter B. CFCs may be destroyed by natural process. The Washington Post 1989 Aug 7;Sect. A:2(col. 5). 28. Audiovisual material AIDS epidemic: the physician’s role [videorecording]. Cleveland (OH): Academy of Medicine of Cleveland, 1987. 29. Computer program Renal system [computer program]. MS-DOS version. Edwardsville (KS): Medi-Sim, 1988. 30. Legal material Toxic Substances Control Act: Hearing on S. 776 Before the Subcomm. on the Environment of the Senate Comm. on Commerce, 94th Cong., 1st Sess. 343(1975). 31. Map Scotland [topographic map]. Washington: National Geographic Society (US), 1981.
32. Dictionary or Encyclopaedia Ectasia. Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary. 27th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1988: 527. 33. Classic material The Winter’s Tale: act 5, scene I, lines 13-16. The complete works of William Shakespeare. London: Rex, 1973. 34. In press Lillywhite HB, Donald JA. Pulmonary blood flow regulation in an aquatic snake. Science. In press.
Electronic Material 35. Journal articel in the internet Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 1995 Jan-Mar [cited 1996 Jun 5];1(1):[24 screens]. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm 36. Monograph in electronic format CDI, clinical dermatology illustrated [monograph on CD-ROM]. Reeves JRT, Maibach H. CMEA Multimedia Group, producers. 2nd ed. Version 2.0 San Diego: CMEA; 1995. 37. Computer program Hemodynamics III: the ups and downs of hemodynamics [computer program]. Version 2.2. Orlando (FL): Computerized Educational System; 1993.
TROPICAL MEDICINE JOURNAL ISSN : 2089-2136 Center for Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada in collaboration with Indonesia...
Opportunities. â¢Joining the military enabled Americans to show their Patriotism. â¢By Joining the military, immigrants and minorities had a chance to show that they were truly Americans. ... â¢On the battlefield, GIs were confronted with extreme
Dec 27, 2013 - 3b. Assemble the Map; 3c. Adjust and Refine the Map. Adjust cartography. 3d. Configure Pop-Ups; 3e. Adjust symbols for point data; 3f. Save the map. 4. .... Download the version of Esri Maps for Office that matches the bit version of M
to any excavation Luork. .... 114 SFACES INCLUDING ..... ANY SOL CONCTION ENCOUNTERED DURING EXCAVATION THAT IS CONTRARY TO HOSE ...... BACKFILL AND COMPACT IN 8 INCH LIFTS, BACKFILL ...... UR SAEs- is.
Dec 31, 2014 - Although beginning students may not know much about GIS at the start of the semester, a successful student will be able to implement a GIS project from start to finish by the end of the semester. Here are a few examples of projects tha
May 19, 2012 - such as GeolSoft, Surpac Range, Mine Sight, Vulcan, and Mining Visualization. System (MVS). Many of mine data comprising money and evaluate information has some source of spatial feature that may easily displayed in maps forms. Manager
Mar 17, 2006 - Vous disposez d'un fichier raster géoréférencé, mais ne connaissez pas ses coordonnées ...... Pradeepkumar's Absolute beginner's Guide to GRASS Installation (PDF, 277K)3. Installation des binaires ...... En générale, vous devrez toujou
Teknologi Penderiaan Jauh dan Sistem Maklumat Geografi (GIS) kebelakangan ini digunakan dengan meluas oleh pelbagai ... data satelit, data jalan dan lain-lain bagi mengkaji kes tebus guna tanah di Negeri Perlis di samping ...... Sepanjang perjalanan
a gvSIG e a geomática livre. De forma simultânea, vão aparecendo diversas comunidades de interesse. (local, setorial, linguístico). O projeto em 2008 já superava as tendências de pesquisas no. Google, comparativamente com a. Geomédia. (provavelmente
Sistem Maklumat Geografi. 9. Laporan Bergambar. Mesyuarat Ke-54 JPDSN. 12. Public Awareness In Geographical. Information Systems. 14. Penyelarasan Urusan-Urusan. Penyelenggaraan Data Spatial dan. Bukanspatial Kadaster. 16. JUPEM - Wins Geospatial Ach
Estos logros compiten en el evento anual de Innovación y Mejora. Continua, en el que reconocemos a los Equipos. Naturales de Trabajo o de Alto Desempeño de acuerdo a los estándares de Lean Manufacturing. Durante el 2014, en GIS implementamos más de 2
Developed, maintained, and provided analysis on interactive GIS database for Chattanooga division office. Â§ Designed a GIS application for the regulatory assessment of the Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant, Chattanooga , TN. 8/2001 - 11/2002. Universi
Jun 6, 2017 - Manual work assignment and tracking through excels, SAP clerks used to send Job package to .... Viewer). ET Desktop. GIS ( ArcGIS. Desktop and. Workflow. Manager. ET IMS ... OSB, Informatica, FME, Rest Services. ArcSDE ...
Oct 10, 2013 - 2004 MCPDP. NITP and TOPREC: Ada, Osun State, ... Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National Policy on Education, Lagos NERDC Press.
Jabatan Pertanian Semenanjung Malaysia 16. Jabatan Laut Sarawak .... yang bertujuan menyelaras dan menetapkan piawaian nama-nama geografi di seluruh negara. Penubuhan JKNG yang kini telah ... Kerajaan Negeri dalam membuat penamaan entiti geograï¬ be
Requirements: Flash version 12 or higher. Recommmendations: Screen resolution of 1280x1024. Department Access Interactive Map · Login. Walla Walla County · City of Walla Walla · City of College Place · City of Waitsburg · City of Prescott. Walla Wall
Jabatan Tanah dan Survei Sarawak. Wakil Kementerian Pertahanan. Jabatan Mineral dan Geosains Malaysia. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia. Jabatan Pertanian Semenanjung Malaysia. Jabatan Perhutanan Sabah. Pusat Infrastruktur Data Geospatial Nega
Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia. 10. Jabatan Pertanian Sabah. 2. Jabatan Tanah dan Ukur Sabah. 11. Jabatan Pertanian Sarawak. 3. Jabatan Tanah dan Survei Sarawak. 12. Pusat Remote Sensing Negara (MACRES). 4. Wakil Kementerian Pertahanan. 13. Unive
Dieses Werk ist das offizielle Handbuch zur Benutzung und Installation der Software Quantum GIS. Die in diesem Werk genannten Soft- und Hardwarebezeichnungen sind in den meisten FÃ¤llen auch eingetragene Warenzeichen und unterliegen als solche den ge
Feb 23, 2011 - A thematic map has a table of contents that allows the reader to add layers of information to a ... of MasterMap Download, the academic interface for Ordnance Survey's MasterMap data, which faculty helped ..... cartography and geovisua
Makalah ini akan membahas service chaining (penjalinan / pemaduan servis). Skenario yang akan ... sebagai kerangka kerjanya. Makalah ini ..... http://www.ontoknowledge.org/oil/downl/IE. EE00.pdf. Accessed August 2002. ESRI (2002). Understanding ArcWe