MANET WG Overview 96th IETF Berlin 2016 Manet WG Chairs
What is MANET? • Mobile Ad hoc Network
– The vision: to support robust and eﬃcient operaGon in mobile wireless networks by incorporaGng IP rouGng funcGonality into mobile nodes. – May operate in isolaGon, or may have gateways to and interface with a ﬁxed network.
Traditional Network characteristics Networks are based on high-speed links, with very low transmission error rates Topology changes are relatively rare, and typically planned events Strict hierarchical design is easy to enforce
Ad-hoc Network characteristics Low bandwidth, variable speed links Packet loss rates of 50% are common Rapid topology changes makes strict hierarchy impossible Network must function in harsh environmental conditions
Radio types • Point-to-Point – These radios typically use TDMA; some also employ highly directional beams. • Appear to a router as a single point-to-point link, or a collection of point-to-point links • Use directional beams for better transmission length, and lower probability of detection/ interception • Broadcast/multicast traffic must be replicated for physical transmission on all radio links
Radio types continued • Broadcast, Multi-Access radios • At OSI Layer 2, these radios employ MAC protocols that are similar to Ethernet (e.g. 802.11) • Base use case is omni-directional, broadcast/multicast transmission is accomplished with a single physical send.
Wired Network Topology
Subnetting Doesn’t Work!!! (at least not well)
Other Addressing Issues • Standard methods for auto-assigning nonduplicate addresses in a MANET do not exist • Reacquiring addresses based on motion or location disrupts applications and causes security issues
• Unique router priority selngs 7 Features: 5 12 1 • Single shared CDS for all routers • Self elecGon • Simple support for classic forwarders 3 Algorithm 11 1. If leaf node then, do NOT forward 15 2. If priority > all 1-hop and 2-hop neighbors, forward 3. StarGng with greatest priority 1-hop neighbor visit neighbors 13 1. Add neighbors visited with > priority than local to queue 2. Pop queue, visit its neighbors 9 4. If any 1-hop neighbor unvisited, forward 10
ECDS Requirements • 2-hop neighbor informaGon • Unique router priority ECDS Algorithm 1. If leaf node then, do NOT forward 2. If priority > all 1-hop and 2hop neighbors, forward 3. StarGng with greatest priority 1-hop neighbor visit its neighbors 1. Add neighbors visited with > priority than local to queue 2. Pop queue, visit its neighbors 1. If any 1-hop neighbor unvisited, forward
1 is not > all Not a leaf node, Use Router IDs neighbors, next Example from 1 for this example next step step
• Previous hop informaGon required • Method to inform neighbors of MPR status 7 12 5 1 Features: • Source speciﬁc ﬂooding paths • Elected by neighbors • Shortest hop paths used 3 11 Algorithm 15 1. Each router selects, as its MPRs, a subset of 1-hop neighbors which cover all 2-hop neighbors 2. Routers inform neighbors of MRP status 13 3. Traﬃc ﬁrst received from an MPR selector is forwarded otherwise blocked
S-MPR Requirements • 2-hop neighbor informaGon • Previous hop informaGon • Method to inform Nbrs of MPRs S-MPR Algorithm 1. Select MPRs 1. Select 1-hop Nbr providing only path to 2-hop Nbr 2. Select 1-hop Nbr which would cover most covered nodes 2. Inform neighbors of MPR status 3. Traﬃc ﬁrst received from an MPR selector is forwarded 4. Traﬃc ﬁrst received from a non-MPR select is blocked
• Method to inform neighbors of MPR status • Unique router priority selngs 7 12 1 Features: • Single shared CDS for all routers Algorithm 1. MPR elecGon is performed and shared in 11 the same way as S-MPR 15 2. Routers which have been selected as an MPR by any other router forward if 1. it has larger priority than all of its 1hop neighbors 13 2. the 1-hop neighbor with the largest priority has selected it as an MPR
MPR-CDS Requirements • 2-hop neighbor informaGon • Method to inform Nbrs of MPRs • Unique router priority selngs MPR-CDS Algorithm 1. MPR elecGon is performed and shared in the same way as S-MPR 2. Routers which have been selected as an MPR by any other router forward if 1. it has larger priority than all of its 1-hop neighbors 2. the 1-hop neighbor with the largest priority has selected it as an MPR
Example from 1 11 14 7
15 has selected Does not have largest priority us as its MPR
OpGmized Link State RouGng Protocol v2 RFC 7181 Overview
What is OLSRv2? • OpGmized Link State RouGng Protocol v2
– A proacGve unicast rouGng protocol for use in MANET networks.
• Key Features
– Uses NHDP
• Uses two hop informaGon • Augments NHDP hello messages with OLSRv2 speciﬁc TLVs
– Metric Support – Use of mulG-point relay for disseminaGng network topology using reduced forwarding set – Supports aaached networks – Provides shortest path routes – Dynamic Timers
What’s OpGmized about OLSRv2? • Reduced number of routers sourcing TC messages – Only routers selected as MPR source TC messages
• Reduced adverGsed address included in topology control (TC) messages – Only MPR selectors are adverGsed
• ReducGon of forwarded TC messages using MPR elecGon – Only MPR neighbors rebroadcast TC messages.
• Dynamic + distance based Gmers
– allow dynamically slower update rates – allow limited ﬂooding of TC messages (e.g. ﬁsheye or hazy ﬂooding)
Reduced # of Reduced # of AdverGsed Sources for TC neighbors in TC messages messages
11 14 7
Reduced # of Forwarders for TC messages
11 14 7
Forwarders when when starGng from 4
Manet Interface Mux (IF 0)
NHDP Instance OLSRv2 Instance Manet Daemon • Graph State
Manet Interface Mux (IF 1)
NHDP Instance SMF Instance
SMF Forwarding Engine
Control Channel SMF Channel
Raw PacketBB Packets Manet Interface Mux (If N) NHDP Instance
PacketBB Class Messages
OLSRv2 Instance SMF Instance
Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol Overview
What is DLEP? • Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol • Key Features – Allows radios to indicate the characterisGcs of variable-quality RF links as they change – Routers can ask radio for speciﬁc data rate or delay
• DLEP speciﬁes “what” data items get exchanged – NOT “how” those items are used
What is DLEP (continued) • MANETs need to handle rapid mobility profiles – Both in terms of topology changes, and devices entering and leaving the network due to mobility
• In these environments, relying solely on ‘HELLO’ and ‘DEAD’ timers running at Layer 3 can be problematic • And all the while, the link quality (speed, delay) can and does change • Routers and radios must be able to signal each other in order for route tables to converge quickly – Convergence events are necessary to minimize blackholes and routing loops – Link metrics are needed to advertize the robustness of the path
What is DLEP (last slide - I promise) • DLEP is specified as a 1-hop ONLY protocol – Multicast discovery ‘signals’ are sent/received with TTL=1
• TCP session employs the Generalized TTL Security Mechanism (GTSM – RFC 5082) • ALL specified messages are designed to be exchanged between a radio and its LOCALLY ATTACHED routers – NO Over-The-Air (OTA) messaging is specified – However, some proprietary OTA signaling between modems and/or modem-to-hub is implicit
DLEP using multiple radios Routers can use radio feedback to monitor link status and find the best wireless paths through complex networks
§ Op0mizes IP rou0ng over radio networks § Immediately recognizes and adapts to network changes § Easily routes between line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight links
TTNT Satellite Link
MANET WG Overview - IETF Datatracker
MANET WG Overview 96th IETF Berlin 2016 Manet WG Chairs
What is MANET? • Mobile Ad hoc Network
– The vision: to support robust and eﬃcient oper...
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