Survey and GIS Manual for GPS (Leica GX1230) Second Edition
Anna Kathrin Hodgkinson
Protocols for Setting up the Leica 1200 GPS – A few notes – Survey Book – End of survey – Weather conditions – Survey Setup – Setting up the GPS – Creating a new Job – Surveying – Start of survey – General Survey – A rough guide to coding and point IDs
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 8 11 11 12 13
Creating points files with co-ordinates and uploading them into the GPS
Troubleshooting on site – Survey Errors – Problems encountered with the GPS
18 18 19
Refreshing the Mobile phone on a Leica RX1250XC GPS using Vodafone
How to get the GPS to recognise its mobile phone after it crashed
Protocols for downloading the Leica 1200
Protocols for inputting data into GIS – The Project Manager – The data you will deal with – Point and Line data – Merging and updating the data
28 28 29 30 32
Adding Tables / Events Layers to gvSIG
Printing in gvSIG
Problems encountered with gvSIG
Appendix 1: Survey Codelist
Appendix 2: Metadata
Appendix 3: Drawing of Plans
Introduction The first edition of this manual was produced by Oxford Archaeology North after development of new on-site survey and GIS methodologies applicable to any archaeological project. The second, revised edition was produced in March 2010 after the release of the gvSIG OA Digitial 2010 Edition. It is intended to supply an easy-to-understand but comprehensive guide to survey and GIS, from setting up survey equipment to downloading and processing survey data. It excludes the initial setup of control stations and any preliminary preparation work. The manual is meant to speed-up, or annihilate the training procedure and provide a guide to survey to field staff in case no professional surveyor is on site. Procedures are explained in great detail with screenshots and photographs where appropriate and guides to troubleshooting and examples for data maintenance are provided. An inexperienced member of field staff should, by following this manual step-by-step, be able to set up a Leica RX1250XC GPS, conduct survey using SmartNet and download and process the survey data, given a certain amount of time. Chapters of this manual have been extracted or adapted from older manuals and adjusted to fit into this guide's sequence and been updated. Any previous authors have been credited. The present copy of the manual has been adjusted for the use on any site using a Leica RX1250XC GPS without a backpack. The manual is written in such manner that it can easily be adjusted for individual sites' survey requirements. Chapters can be extracted easily and supplied individually. Soft- and hardware described in this manual are flexible, although it is recommended to acquire copies of the following: –
Inkscape open source vector editing software download from: http://www.inkscape.org/
And a copy of Leica GeoOffice or the equivalent downloading software for the GPS used on site – this should be provided by the manufacturer.
Anna Hodgkinson, the author of this manual, would be grateful for further feedback on its usability, contents and layout. She is employed by OA North as a Supervisor in Geomatics and contactable via email: [email protected] Anna Hodgkinson, March 2010
Protocols for Setting up the Leica 1200 GPS by Mark Littlewood and Anne Kilgour Cooper, adapted by Anna Hodgkinson
Any problems, call the Geomatics representative for your project.
A few notes: This equipment is expensive, so please look after it.
Survey Book: It is useful to carry a (yellow and weatherproof) survey book when on site. Write down any queries and errors to be rectified later.
End of survey: – – – –
Hit “ESC” a number of times to exit the survey interface and return to the main menu on the GPS. Then press and hold “ESC” to turn off the GPS. Undo all equipment, ensure it is as clean as possible and replace it in the way you received it Remove the batteries from the GPS and charge them using the Leica charger so everything is charged for use the following day
Weather conditions: – –
The GPS is waterproof, but the satellite reception may be bad should the sky be overcast. After a day out in the rain, the machine must be taken out of the box to dry out, the yellow cover and the box also need drying out.
Survey Setup Setting up the GPS When you collect your equipment make sure that you have the following • 1 pole • a cradle to fix to the pole • a satellite dish with a battery • a computer with battery and Compact Flash (CF) card • 2 spare batteries in the red box • bluetooth mobile phone • a container for the mobile phone • spare mobile phone batteries, a recharger and a car charger
Slip the cradle on the pole, set the angle so you can look at the surface comfortably and tighten it up The dish screws on the top Loosen the black screw at the top of the pole, extend the pole until it clicks into place and tighten it up again
The computer sits in the cradle. Ensure that the red button then gets pushed up to lock it in place.
Attach the high viz container to the now extended pole and switch on the mobile phone. Once turned on, lock its keys.
If you do not turn the phone on soon, this warning will appear: WARNING: 1869 Bluetooth 2: The device Nokia Phone cannot be found. Please turn on and activate Bluetooth on the Nokia Phone device or configure this BT port to use the device. Turn on the GPS antenna (satellite dish)
Press the ON button (bottom right)
Wait for the main screen to load. It will load through a windows CE screen and will eventually get to the main survey screen.
For survey, either press 1, or use the yellow arrow keys and highlight ‘Survey’ and press ENTER (red button).
Creating a new Job: On the next screen you will see that the top line is highlighted. Press enter This will show a list of jobs available on the machine. You need to start a new one, so press ‘F2’ - New
Type in a sensible job name followed by the date. The job at Brunel Way, Swansea would be Swansea 110207, the job at the Ashmolean, Oxford would be Ashmolean 121206, for example. Ensure sure the job's name can be easily understood by the person downloading and processing the data. The date is VERY IMPORTANT. Press ENTER Type in a description of the work you are going to do, e.g. Survey Press ENTER On the creator line, type in your initials. Press ENTER
You will notice near the top of the screen that there are several tabs. The page - F6, button will switch between the different tabs (“Page across”) Page across to the “Code” tab. Ensure that the codelist the one you were assigned to use on your project. Use the left and right arrows to select the correct one. Page across The co-ordinate system should be OSGB36 (02) Page across The average should be Averaging Mode: Average Method: Weighted Points to use: TPS & GPS Avge Limit Pos: 0.050 Avge Limit Ht: 0.075
press F1 - “Store” You will return to the list of jobs. Ensure that your job is highlighted and press F1 – Cont On this page, ensure that the job name is correct, the coord system is correct, the codelist is correct The “config set” should be SMARTNET ROVER The antenna should be AX1202 Pole
Press F1 - cont
Look at the very top of the screen. You should see some crosshairs. They will have a large circle, a medium sized circle or a tiny circle around the centre. You should also see an @ symbol to the right of the bit which says how many satellite signals you are getting on the L1 and L2 frequencies. This all means that the GPS has a code only solution with an accuracy of several metres, placing it roughly in the world. The @ symbol means that you are connected to the internet Press SHIFT followed by F3, which will connect you to the internet and enable your GPS to get an accuracy of up to 15mm. As before, you will notice a series of tabs showing that there are several pages - “Survey”, “Code”, “Annot”, “Map” You will mostly be using Code and Map. Page across (F6) to the code page
The crosshairs at the very top of the screen will have a large, a medium sized or a small circle around the centre, wait for the circle to become small. Check the numbers at the bottom right of the screen (3D CQ). This will tell you your accuracy. You can’t record points with an accuracy of 0.075m or more. If this accuracy does not get to a reasonable level, ensure you are not standing under a tree, or close to a building. If it is still very inaccurate, check your cables and ensure they are all done up. If it’s still inaccurate, walk around for a few minutes, and if you still don’t get anything, call the emergency contact number you have been provided with.
Surveying Start of survey General remarks: – If you need to write down a value to check a point before recording it, or for temporary points, press ‘dist’. Write down the values. Then press ‘rec’ in case you choose to record it. – You can retrieve, edit and delete all data by entering the data menu. This can be found by pushing the USER button, then selecting “Data manager” (see p. 18). – The data from your current job will be displayed and it will be grouped in points, lines and areas. The points which make up your lines will be listed as well, but without a code. The ‘Page’ button switches between different bits of information, including a map of what has been surveyed in. You can see what page you’re on by the tabs at the top - Survey, Offset, Code, Map – The map page is very useful for block planning features. You can zoom in and out and use the yellow arrow keys to scroll around.
Page to the Code Tab. This is the screen that allows you to define Point_ID and code and can display the eastings, northings and height of any point you take. You will need to enter a point ID (see below) and a code for the point Scroll down to the Code line. Press enter. Select the code according to the codelist and data, either by scrolling down to it, or pressing the left arrow and typing it in. Press enter. Ensure the Point_ID is accurate. Check the codelist-page for conventions (Appendix 1) Point occupation: Once these have been entered, place the pole onto the feature / point to be surveyed and level it using the bubble. Now press F1 - “OCUPY”. The GPS will make a beeping noise. The screen, will either display a line just below the 3D CQ saying ‘point occupied’ or change to a screen asking for a mandatory attribute, in which case you will have to type in a purely numeric value, e.g. 300 for P300.1, 217 for SF217 etc.
General Survey: Points – You need to type in the point ID. See Appendix 1: Codelist – for examples! – – – –
Page to the Code tab. Use the left and right arrows to select the correct code. Drawing points and Levels will be surveyed using the appropriate codes: An example is given here, but please refer to the Appendix 1
Drawing Points for plans: Code: DP P – Point_ID: DP”Plannumber”.1 and DP”Sectionnumber”S for sections etc. See Appendix 2.
Context (and other) Levels: Code: CTXTLVL – Point_ID: Context number
Lines – NO closed area polygons are surveyed. Use line codes at all times! – Use the left and right arrows to select the correct code. You are able to use the code screen to get all the codes, and therefore open lines and areas from here. Press cont when you’ve selected the correct code. – Feature outlines: FEP – Intervention lines: INT – Internal limits of excavation: INT – Limit of excavation: LOE
ALWAYS Press SHIFT + F7 when you’ve finished your line or area. In the case of errors during survey: see p. 18
A rough guide to coding and point Ids – please see Appendix 1 for a complete list of codes
Type of survey Level (general) (Grid top) (Grid Base) Plan drawing point
Code LVL### LVLGTOP LVLGBASE DP P
There are five different types of level in the codelist – choose the appropriate!
LVL_456 LVL_456 70002.3 and .4 (Planning point)
Section drawing point Block plan Station
70002.1 (Section point)
Small Find Georectificat ion Point
Planning points .1 and .2 are usually the section points and will be surveyed in the DP S code. They are not labelled with the plan number, whilst the plan points .3 and .4 are. Section Points will be marked on site with labels clarifying that they mark a Section rather than being the planning points! Start at 1 and use consecutive numbers. When you to set up – code up station points as Stations
Creating points files with co-ordinates and uploading them into the GPS You may be asked to set out points from known co-ordinates on site. The points should exist as a shapefile in your GIS project. Ensure each point has an individual point ID. Ensure you have the X and Y information within the shapefile's .dbf file. You can apply this manually by using the field calculator: Start editing the shapefile containing the information of the points you wish to set out and open its attrubute table. Now select: “Table – Manage Fields” and add two columns named “Eastings” and “Northings”. Choose “Double” as data type. - two new columns will appear in the attribute table. Click on the “Eastings” column and open the “Field calculator” tool Highlight the “Eastings” column on the left hand side, and on the right, scroll down until you find “x”. Double click only on “x” and confirm this. Repeat the above for the “Northings” column, selecting “y” in the field calculator. The shapefile's .dbf file now contains Eastings and Northings, i.e. X and Y data. Open the .dbf file from its stored location (right-click on the shapefile in gvSIG and select “properties” - the filepath will help locating the .dbf file). Save the file as a .csv (comma delimited) file in a logical location. Now plug the CF card into the computer and navigate to its “Data” folder. Paste a copy of the .csv file into this “Data” folder. Replace the CF card and turn the GPS on.
Select “4 – convert”
Select “2 – Import ASCII/GSI Data to Job”
Select: Import: ASCII Data Folder: the Data folder on the CF card From File: the .csv file you uploaded onto the card earlier To job: The job you wish to use as your setting out job – create a new, empty job, called “STKE_(with a reference to what is being set out)” Header: “1” (The .dbf file has a header, therefore you have to specify that row 1 of the .csv file contains the information, rather than standing for its own point) Hit “CONT” and a message will be displayed, informing you that the points have been imported.
Setting out You may be asked to set out new points created in GIS or retrieve previously surveyed points. In any case, the co-ordinates of the points to be staked out must be known and stored on the GPS. For uploading points created from a shapefile, see p. 14. Make a list and sketch-map of the points to be staked out for orientation and take this to site. From the main screen on the remote control, choose “2 – Programs”, then “8 – Stakeout” Ensure you select the job the points have been stored to and set it up following the setup instructions prior to survey if this job has not been set up yet.
A screen entitled “Orthogonal Stakeout” will show up. Select the point to be staked out by its Point ID
Hit “Shift”, then “Conf” and ensure the option “Prefix” (this being “STKE”) is selected – this differentiates the original points from the points staked out. Values will be displayed for “Forw” (forward) and “Rght” (right) - this is the distance to the target point. Move the distance and towards the direction the instrument points you in: the values will change as you move. Once the target point is as close as possible – preferably within less than 0.003m in either direction, mark this spot with a peg, nail or survey flag. Now place the GPS on the centrepoint of the target, check the distance once again by looking at the screen, and then hit “All” to record the point.
If you now check the Data Manager, the point just recorded will show up as “STKE##” and the point initially selected as a target will show up with a small flag next to it.
The STKE points will be surveyed without a code – use the data manager to change this manually. Write the number on the tags in a white space and make people aware of them.
Troubleshooting on site Survey Errors Errors can be corrected on site, or in the office, so make sure all errors are clearly written in the survey book. To correct mistakes while you’re surveying, press User and then Data Manager
Highlight the point and press “edit”. You can change the Point ID, code and reflector height. Each reflector height must be done separately, so if there’s ten in a row, you’ll have to do all ten. Once it’s altered, press store To change lines, page to the lines tab. Select the line and press enter. You can remove points surveyed in by mistake. N.B. These will be downloaded as a NOCODEPOINT shapefile, but saved only as separate points.
Once you’re done, press cont.
Otherwise, write down your errors on your survey sheet and ensure the person who is dealing with the download knows about them. It may be quicker to correct in LGO or gvSIG.
Problems encountered with the GPS: Problems with coding: In case the codelist shows only point- or only linecodes when coding up: From the Main Menu select “3 Management” – Select “5 Configuration Sets” – Highlight the appropriate one and hit “EDIT” – A Wizard screen is displayed – press “CONT” (F1) until you reach a page entitled “Coding and Linework” On this screen highlight the lign reading: “Show Codes:” and ensure that “All Codes” is selected (rather than only point- or line codes). –
Refreshing the Mobile phone on a Leica RX1250XC GPS using Vodafone by Mark Littlewood
It is uncertain how successful these methods are or whether they will work with a backpack GPS. In places like Kent and/or Essex you may find your 3D coordinate quality dropping quite alarmingly around lunchtime and in the late afternoon/evening. This will be despite the fact that you are tracking plenty of satellites and the fact that your phone has a good signal. Basically Packet Data is an added extra on the Vodafone network and Smartnet GPS use this extra bandwidth to work in. However mobile phone calls have priority and when there are a lot of people on the system, a GPS will get pushed down the queue. There are two suggested methods for refreshing your place in the queue and getting your 3D coordinate quality back. Network change On your mobilephone (Nokia 6021): Menu-Settings-Phone settings-Operator selection Switch from Automatic to Manual Select another network. Repeat: Menu-Settings-Phone settings-Operator selection Switch from Automatic to Manual and this time select the Vodafone network Repeat Menu-Settings-Phone settings-Operator selection and select Automatic This should clear the Vodaphone queue and put you back in your original queue position. 3D coordinate quality should return. Hard e-set With the GPS switched on; – Remove the battery – Remove the SIM card – Replace the battery – Switch back on – Remove the battery – Replace the battery back in – Replace the Sim card This should also refresh your place in the queue. 20
How to get the GPS to recognise its mobile phone after it crashed by Mark Littlewood
Shift+F5 Now utilising red stylus pen: Windows flag in bottom left hand corner/settings/control panel Bluetooth Device Properties in upper left corner (double click) Should have 2 devices in the Trusted bit. One will be the saucer shaped antenna called [ Unnamed (0012f3051455) The other will be your phone. Highlight it/arrow at bottom of screen pointing to the untrusted box click on. Tap 0k then the cross in the top. Cross again. Double click SmartWorx symbol to get back to Main Menu Choose your configuration setting then you'll probably have to go to: 5 Config.../ 4 Interfaces/ Find the Internet line F3 EDIT then F4 SRCH. It should find your phone whereby you may have to put the pin number onto both machines again 1234 ( or 0000). Basically PIN number has to be the same on both machines. Otherwise you will have to do all of the above. Should you ever need to search for the GPS antenna the pin code to tap in is always 0000.
Protocols for downloading the Leica 1200 by Anne Kilgour Cooper, adapted by Anna Hodgkinson –
Navigate to Project\Survey\dated folders\Survey2009\
Copy the folder called GPS_DATE_Template and paste it into the same folder. Rename it with the date of your survey job. (Project_TST_######)
Open LEICA Geo Office Combined
select “Projects” Select New project (white sheet symbol to the top left)
In the General Tab: Project Name: Project_###### (date) Location: Project\Survey\Dated folders\folder with correct date\LGO Project
Coordinates Tab: Coordinate system: OSGB36
Codelist_Template: Leica System 1200 – Advanced
Hit “OK” Now you need to import the raw data. Ensure that the card is in the card reader. Usually the CF card will have to go straight back into the GPS on site to ensure survey coverage. Therefore it is advisable to copy the data from CF card\DBX to a folder on the PC (e.g. Temporary_Survey_Download on the desktop). Copy all the files with the job's name to this folder.
Go to Import - Raw data or hit the equivalent button on the toolbar.
Locate to the CF card\DBX\the project you want to import or to the folder on the PC containing the the raw data copied across earlier (Temporary_Survey_Download on the desktop)
A screen will pop up with a list of projects, including yours, make sure it is highlighted.
Click the icon with the text on it (display field book)
Click the floppy disc next to the Fieldbook report button – this saves back the raw data. It is saved into the folder “Backup_raw_data” in the Dated Folder. Now click “Assign” Now click “Close” to close the dialogue.
Leica GeoOffice will show a series of points as text. Click Local then Grid (top right)
Click Tools – Compute Geoid Separations
N.B. It can happen that (as shown in the image, right), the option “Compute Geoid Separations” is greyed out, i.e. not available. The solution in this case is to go “File” - Project Properties” and to go to the “Coordinates” tab. The coordinate system will most likely have changed itself to being one without a Geiod model. Simply change it back to OSGB36(02) and hit “Apply” The Geiod separation is now possible.
The next step extracts the data that will be input into GIS : Select: – Export - Shape file
Navigate to your D:\oa\Project\Survey\Dated_Folders\Project_date\Shape file\2D Go into “settings” and ensure that 2D is selected. In case you are running LGO for the first time since installation, use the tabs at the top to determine exactly what type of data will be embedded into each type of survey object. This should, by default be defined as: Points: Point code Attribute 1 Point ID Northing/Lat Easting/Long Height
Line Code ID Attribute 1 Line ID
Repeat the above for 3D shapefiles. (using the 3D folder) Click “Save”. Export ASCII data in the same manner, saving it into the “Spreadsheet” folder.
Now right click on the fieldbook report in Leica GeoOffice and print it as a PDF using the PDFCreator. It will be called the same as the job and save it in your dated folder\LGO_Fieldbook_Report. Ensure you name each saved item (or group of items in the case of shapefiles) with the name of the job and save it in the dated folder/appropriate folder!!!
Please ensure you name everything appropriately and in the same way as the previous survey! Close Leica Geo Office.
Protocols for inputting data into GIS by Anna Hodgkinson with extracts from Ducke, B. 2008, “An Introduction to gvSIG Open Source GIS on Windows” The GIS software package used is called gvSIG. It is an open source program developed by the Government of Valencia, Spain. The particular package we use is the OA Digital 2010 Edition, based on gvSIG 1.10, adapted by Ben Ducke. The following instructions are based on the assumption that the user is operating a Microsoft Windows computer. –
Open the current gvSIG project, usually stored in D:\Project\GIS\projects\gvSIG
Open the project by double-clicking – gvSIG opens
If no map is displayed go “Show – Project Manager”
The Project Manager –
The Project Manager provides a way of working with several data views and map layouts within one project. It contains the sections “View”, “Table” and “Map”. You will need to get back to the project manager often. To do so, choose “Window - Project manager” from the main menu.
Select “View” and highlight the view you wish to see click “open”: The view will be displayed.
– – –
The view usually contains all the relevant data from the present fieldwork. The data is displayed in layers, which are saved as shapefiles and referenced externally: Highlight (by clicking onto) one of the layers and right-click. Select “Properties”: This will show you, amongst other information, the filepath that this file is stored at.
The filepath for all the current layers in the GIS project are stored in Project\GIS\shapefiles\current! ONLY the current layers can be stored here, the old ones are to be removed to the folder Project\GIS\shapefiles\old as soon as the update has been undertaken The file may be listed under a different name in gvSIG – this is because it is possible to rename the individual layers once they have been imported into GIS:
“Archaeological Features is the layer name, whilst the shapefile is called “Arch_features_240609” The tabs at the top of the “Properties” Window give the options to change a particular layer's appearance in the “Symbology” tab and also to display attribute data in the “Labelling“ tab.
The data you will deal with: The survey data which will be input into the current GIS project will have the same format as the existing data and it will consist of the shapefiles you produced during survey (see above). Check your dated survey folder – shapefiles for what data you have actually imported: Remember: There are three files (at least) to every shapefile (.shp, and .dbf are always present) The files are named exactly as the CODES you used during survey – therefore you should be able to recognise these names from the features, finds etc. you surveyed. As mentioned above, you survey only line data and point data. Therefore take a moment to look at your data and take a note at what's what. ONLY the line data gets imported directly into the GIS, the point data is added manually.
Delete the old layers from the project once the new ones have been uploaded!
Point and Line data: Open the main view of the gvSIG project (unless, of course, it is already open). The codes used for this have a description each: eg. ILOE = Internal Limit of excavation, relating to a layer in the GIS project (see Appendix 2). Your survey data will (probably) include archaeological features. These will be on the “FEP” code in the GPS, therefore downloaded into your dated shapefiles folder as “FEP” and the GIS project will include a layer called “Archaeological_features_110609” (the shapefile is dated). The date does not have to be that of the previous day – it depends on whether any archaeological features were surveyed that day or not. The following point-shapefiles from your survey folder will not be included in the update and do not need to be updated: – STN – as these remain constant – BCK – is for reference only in case the survey data looks wrong after it has been imported into GIS (in which case import the BCK point – one should be taken at for each survey setup – and check whether it is in the same location as your backsight-point) – NOCODEPOINT: open the .dbf file of the NOCODEPOINT shapefile and check whether it contains any finds or other point data you might have forgotten to code up. Open the file with scalc (OpenOffice Spreadsheet), NOT with Microsoft Excel!! If you surveyed following the above instructions, you should have no data on wrong layers!!!
Now: add the fresh survey data. Shapefiles are imported ONE AT A TIME and dealt with separately to avoid errors!!! Choose “View - Add layer” from the main menu or click on the layer icon in the icon bar.
The “Add layer” dialogue will pop up.
Make sure the “File” tab is selected and choose “Add”.
Ensure the option “Shapefile” is selected.
Navigate to D:\oa\Project\Survey\Dated_Folders\Survey_2009\Proj ect_TST_DATE\shapefiles\2D and select one line layer. Then click “OK”. The shapefile will now be added to the layer list of the active view.
If you cannot see anything: Use “zoom to layer” from the layer context menu (right mouse button) to zoom to the extents of a specific layer .
Merging and updating the data: Open the Sextante Toolbox by clicking on the small icon at the top left of the gvSIG toolbar.
The toolbox will pop up displaying a list of functions. Click on the “+” in front of “Vector Layer Tools” and then double-click on “Merge”
Another window will pop up, asking you to specify the main / source layer: This will be the shapefile already existing in your project with a date, eg “Archaeological Features”. Select your input layer: select the shapefile you have just imported - “FEP” and click “Accept”. The output should be saved as a temporary file initially, for the sake of security.
Click “Okay” - a layer will be produced that contains all the features you surveyed today plus all those features surveyed at earlier dates. Make sure that everything appears in the correct place.
NOW save this result: Highlight the layer called “Result” and go “Layer – save as – Shapefile” in the gvSIG toolbar. Navigate to the Project\GIS\shapefiles\current folder and click ONCE on the previous layer which you just merged with your survey data. The name will be displayed on the input bar, so all you need to do now is change the date (instead of overwriting the original file) and save it. gvSIG will ask you whether you would like to add the new layer to the view - “Yes”
Now – Delete the Result, the surveyed shapefile you added to the project AND the shapefile you merged it with from the project by rightclicking onto each layer when highlighted and selecting “Delete layer” and confirming this. Repeat this procedure for each shapefile you downloaded. Close the project and save the changes. Now go to Project\GIS\shapefiles\current and select the three files off each shapefile you have updated. Cut them and paste them into Project\GISshapefiles\old This practise ensures that all layers are up-to-date and clean, and all original survey data remains untouched and safe. FOR AN EXAPLE SET OF METATADA SEE Appendix 3
Editing Shapefiles It can happen that survey data looks slightly messy when exported. This is due to the fact that we survey to a millimetre's accuracy and the end- and mid-points of lines do not always snap together. This is only applied to the merged shapefiles which are edited, the original survey data remains untouched and backed-up, in case it may have to be re-imported.
The tools described in the following are also used whilst digitising plans, but only represent a limited choice of editing tools – in fact only those used for very basic edition. For more options, please consult further documentation.
Highlight the layer you wish to edit and select “Start Editing”.
The layer's name turns red and the view will be halved by a command line that pops up at the base. You can minimise this by clicking onto the arrow pointing downwards to the top right of this bar – usually it is not required.
Close your open polygons by selecting to draw a polyline. Snap these to the end points of your open feature.
Should you have taken a point in the wrong position choose “edit vertex”, click once onto the point you wish to remove, then right-click onto it and select “Delete”. You can also add further vertices by choosing “Add”. The “Selection” button on the toolbar will enable the editing and re-placing of individual nodes.
Line data can be split by using the “Split Geometries” tool:
Select the feature to be edited and select the “Split geometries” tool. Draw a line from a point not on the feature you wish to edit to the point you wish to break it at and then another point on the same line (or a line with two points crossing over the breaking point).
Then type “e” and hit “enter”. The line will be split at the point defined and two separate geometries will have been created.
Closed polygons are produced with tools found in the Sextante toolbox, such as the “Polygonize” function. Editing and attaching attribute data: The following can be applied for a whole range of attribute data editions, the example represents the attaching of context numbers to surveyed features. Levels with context numbers attached will have been surveyed in the field and these points will be displayed within the archaeological feature layer. Label these points with the “point_ID” field. Start editing the shapefile and open the attribute table. Select “Table” (top toolbar) - “Manage fields” and add a column to the table re-naming it “Context”. Now highlight one feature in the attribute table by clicking on it and “Zoom to selection”: Note the context number of the level within this feature. Enter the context number in the first column of the attribute table of the highlighted feature and hit enter.
When finished editing: Do not forget to right-click on the layer again and select “Stop editing”.
A dialogue will appear asking whether you would like to save the edits – Select “Yes”. The edits to the shapefile will be saved externally.
If you are uncertain and would rather keep a copy of the old shapefile, create a copy of the main shapefile (appropriately named) and practice editing data in this.
Adding Tables / Events Layers to gvSIG This methodology describes how to create tables of points with known co-ordinates and how to load them into gvSIG. It is for example useful for merging existing points shapefiles with additional surveyed ones, or for creating lists of points for reference. The described sequence deals with the merging of new survey data with the main datasets after two different types of survey equipment were used on site and the data could no longer be merged using the Sextante Toolbox in gvSIG. It is, nevertheless, applicable to a broad range of data management methodologies. Open, in separate explorer windows, both the dated shapefile folder and the Project\GIS\shapefiles\current\CSV_current folder Now open one of your .dbf files from your dated shapefile folder. Open the equivalent .dbf file in Project\GIS\current\CSV_Current folder. Open both using scalc (OpenOffice spreadsheet tool).
Copy the point ID, the Eastings and Northings and Elevations of the dated shapefile and paste and arrange them in the main spreadsheet. Highlight the Easting, Northing and Elevation columns in the main spreadsheet by clicking onto their letters “B,C,D” at the top. Right-click and go “format cells”. Now specify to display 3 decimal places.
Once the old main .dbf file has been updated, hit “file – save as” and save it in the CSV_Current folder with the same name but current date. Cut the old .dbf file and paste it into the “Old” folder in CSV_Current. Repeat the above for each points layer, not altering the dated survey shapefile's .dbf file.
Hit “Show – Project manager” and highlight the “Tables”. Click “new”. Navigate to the new current .dbf file you just stored in CSV_current and hit “open”.
Once you have clicked “Okay” the table should open, displaying a list of points – in fact the same points contained in the .dbf file. Close this table and close the Project Manager.
Open the main view of the gvSIG project (unless, of course, it is already open).
The following step allows one to add the points file as a layer: Go to “View” - “Add points from table”
Now select the table you just added to the project from the drop-down menu. Define “Easting” and “Northing” as input locators and hit “OK” The points contained in the data-table will be displayed as a layer in gvSIG
Activate this function and select the table you just added to the project from the dropdown menu. Define “Easting” and “Northing” as input locators and hit “OK” The points contained in the data-table will be displayed as a layer in gvSIG
Now save this data as a shapefile: – Highlight the layer created which ends in “.dbf” and go “Layer – save as – Shapefile” in the gvSIG toolbar – Navigate to the Project\GIS\shapefiles\current folder and click ONCE on the previous layer – Change the date (instead of overwriting the original file) and save it. – gvSIG will ask you whether you would like to add the new layer to the view - “Yes” – Now – Delete the old complete shapefile AND the .dbf layer from the project by right-clicking onto each layer when highlighted and selecting “Delete layer” and confirming this. –
Now go to Project\GIS\shapefiles\current and select the three files off each shapefile you have updated. Cut them and paste them into Project\GISshapefiles\old
Joining tables The following description is based on data tables exported from a MS Access database and therefore the exporting procedure forms the first part of this chapter. It is, however, possible, to link any .dbf file to a layer file in gvSIG, as long as a) they share a common field usable as a linking field, such as a key and b) this common field is of exactly the same data type in both tables. Exporting the data-table from MS Access – Open the MS Access database and the table you wish to join with a layer in gvSIG. – Do “File – Save as/Export” to export this table as an XLS (3) file. Save it and then open the XLS file (in either OpenOffice or MS Excel) and save it as a DBase (.dbf) file. Creating the join – Open the Project Manager in gvSIG and add the .dbf file just created to the project (using the “Table” tab) – Ensure the shapefile/layer you wish to link to the data-table is uploaded. – Open its attribute table. – Right-click on the layer in the TOC and select “Join”. This activates the “join-table” function.
– – –
– – –
A dialogue will pop up asking you to specify the main layer: This will be the attribute table just opened. Specify the field to join to: This is the field both tables have in common. The Field Prefix for the first field is defined automatically, but can be changed if wished. Hit “Next”
Then select the target table: this is the table you wish to add to/join into the source table Select the field to join to: This, again, is the field both tables have in common. Hit “Finish”
The external table's fields will now have been appended to the layer's attribute table:
You can now highlight the layer in the TOC and save it as a shapefile (Layer – Export as shapefile) –
The attribute table of the new shapefile will contain both its original information and the information contained in the joined table!
Printing in gvSIG Open the Project manager, and click on “Map” - A list of printable maps will be displayed Now either – highlight an existing map and click “open” or – click “new”, then highlight the new map at the bottom of the list and click “open”
Go to “Map – page layout” and specify page layout. The following is recommended:
Draw a black rectangle onto the margins which will be your boundary for the View. Draw the line by clicking onto the margin's top left corner, releasing the mouse button and then clicking again directly onto the bottom right corner. Right-click and “Properties” will allow you to edit this line's appearance:
Insert a View, selecting the active view and a “constant” scale – this allows you define the zoom level manually.
The view is drawn by keeping the mouse button held down whilst drawing the rectangle. 42
Once the view has been inserted, right-click onto it and move it to the bottom of the map – the line previously drawn will re-appear.
Insert a scalebar and edit its properties. This can sometimes be a little temperamental in gvSIG and requires some patience:
Insert a North Arrow: OA employees: use the OA North Arrow specified by a blank space in the list of North Arrows.
Insert a legend:
A dialogue will pop up, allowing you to choose from layers you wish to name in the legend – Generally everything shown on the map should be in the legend. You will have to highlight the active view in order to activate the list of options. The key will generate layer names according to what they are called in the main view – therefore it is sensible to name them appropriately in the TOC before opening the map (right-click – “Rename”). Draw white rectangles (white fill without transparency) for the Scalebar, North Arrow and Legend if they are on a multicoloured background.
Print your map as a PDF – save in Project\GIS\Daily_PDF\ - make a dated folder and name your map appropriately.
If the map is meant to be included into a report or supposed to serve any other official purpose, the open source vector editing software Inkscape is highly useful for editing of PDFs: – Open the .pdf file in Inkscape – Then select everything by hitting “ctrl” + “A” – Go: “Object” - “Ungroup” - repeat this until everything has been ungrouped: Objects can be moved individually – Ensure to separate the numbers from the scalebar! – Draw white rectangles over the margins and arrange items in an appropriate order (“Object” - “Raise” or “Lower”), so that overlapping items are not printed in the margins – Save the drawing as both .svg and .pdf! A detailed guide to producing layouts in Inkscape is also available on www.openarchaeology.net.
Georeferencing These instructions apply to georectified photography and plans drawn on site, which have to be georeferenced prior to digitising.
General notes: •
When placing survey target tags in the ground, ensure not to pierce the tag in the centre of the target, but secure it on both sides, leaving the centre of the target, the cross-hairs, clear and accurate. Furthermore, each photograph requires at least four targets placed at the same level, evenly spaced and the photograph must be taken as vertically as possible. It is better to use more points rather than less for each georectification in order to achieve the highest level of flexibility and accuracy. The RMS error displayed during the process of georefencing is an indication of control point placement consistency, *not* the quality of the rectification itself. The georectification should be accurate enough as long as the RMS does not get higher than the required accuracy, (e.g. 0.05 for 5cm). 3 is the minimum for the rectification to actually work, and ideally, control points should be distributed evenly throughout the image. For images that have significant internal "warping" (e.g. old scanned maps, photos of very "curvy" surfaces), at least 7 points should be used. The formula for figuring out the minimum number of control points for a selected order "n" of transformation is: ((n + 1) * (n + 2) / 2) – So 1st order = 3, 2nd order = 6
Instructions Open the gvSIG project and ensure that the shapefile containing the surveyed georectification tags has been added as a layer. Label the points with the point ID – this is done via the properties box of the shapefile in gvSIG. The second tab “symbols” in the properties will allow the labelling style to be defined.
Acquire a copy of the photography or plan register and locate the photographs or plans that are to be rectified. Open the individual photos using either GIMP or Irfanview and crop them so that the tags form the outer boundary of the picture and there is not too much overlap. Save these photos in a nominated folder with the appendix “b” behind each file's name. The register will usually tell which rectification points were used for which photograph. The points 45
used for planning should be obvious from the plan where drawing- or gridpoints should have been labelled. Normally several shots will be taken per view, which will also be logged in the register, but it will have to be decided which photograph is of the highest quality to be used. The following uses georectified photography as an example, but is just as applicable to plans: The “Georeferencer” tool in gvSIG is used to place the pictures. This is activated by selecting “Tools Georeferencing”
This window will pop up: Background layers: Select the active view Input file: Select the image you wish to georeference. Output file: Can be identified, but if nothing is chosen, the metadata is attached to the Input file. Transformation: Affine is the most commonly used transformation and requires a minimum of three control points. Refer to the text below “General notes” at the start of this chapter for further information on transformations.
Hit “Accept” and the following screen will appear: The active view will appear in the left window, zoomed to its full extent, whilst the right window shows the file to be georeferenced. The red crosshairs centre onto a zoomed view of either window, appearing at the base.
The “Settings” tool will allow you to change several settings, such as background colours and transformations:
A black background is not always a convenient working background, especially as labels are often displayed in black and thus not legible
Using The information on the photography register, the existing survey data, • any previously georeferenced photographs of the same area and • one's knowledge of the site, familiarise yourself with the points on the ground and in the image. Be sure to know the image's rotation and orientation. • •
Then select the first set of points and use the “Zoom to select area” tool to zoom into the first source and target points in both windows.
Once zoomed in, hit the black arrow pointing to the right - “New”.
Place the source point onto the target in the image (right window) and then drop the point onto the equivalent in the left window:
Use the “Previous zoom” or “-” tools above and below the “Zoom to select area” tool to select further points and repeat the above several times – at least three points are required, but a higher number increases the accuracy:
The RMS error (see General notes, above) will change, and points can be deactivated in the list in order to decrease this error. Once all points have been placed, hit the following button:
And select “Yes” in the following three windows:
The file will be loaded into the active view as a raster layer. Position the layer below some survey data in the TOC and check for errors and inaccuracies. Note them down and possibly raise problems with site staff in order to make the next set of photographs even better.
Problems encountered with gvSIG: Please see the OA Digital website's section on common gvSIG errors and bugs and troubleshooting:
Appendix 1: Survey Codelist: This is a codelist designed and produced for basic site survey. The black writing is the code name, the red writing shows the desired format for each point's point_ID. This codelist can be used, and naturally altered for each project's individual survey requirements. –
STN: Station point: OAN1
BCK: Backsight check: OAN2
DP P: four per plan – two of these labeled as section points for recognition. Surveyed at ground level for height accuracy – DP70002.1
DP S: For each Section. Surveyed at ground level for height accuracy – DP70002.1S
LVLGTOP: Levels taken on top of gridsquares – LVL_765
LVLGBASE: Levels taken on base of gridsquare – LVL_765
LVL: general spotheight – LVL1.1, LVL1.2 etc.
GP: Gridnail – GP1, GP2
MONO: Monolith: Sample Number
DEND: Dendrochronological Sample: Sample Number
CTXTLVL: Level taken on top of a feature. - 70001. Also valid for base of feature – 70001B
BS: Bulk Sample: Taken at the base of the sample intervention: Sample Number
WD: Wood-numbers: Taken on top of each piece of wood: Wood Number – 75032
SF: All finds are recorded by context and have four digits behind the “.”– 70000.0001
RP: Georectification Point: 75004
FEP: Archaeological Feature – FEP1.1, FEP1.2 etc.
DEP: Edge of Deposit – DEP1.1, DEP1.2 etc.
MOD: Modern feature – Lines. MOD1.1, MOD1.2 etc.
INT: Intervention through feature, also used for post-ex planning – INT1.1, INT1.2 etc.
ILOE: Internal limit of excavation – ILOE1.1, ILOE1.2 etc.
LOE: Limit of excavation – LOE1.1, LOE1.2 etc.
Appendix 2: Metadata: This example can be followed for setting up a logical, easy-to-maintain file-structure and set of GIS data D:\oa\project\GIS\Shapefiles\current Arch_features_old_270709.shp Features exported and turned off due to becoming invalid. This is an Archive only. Features may be re-instated from this layer. Not to be mistaken for layer above!!! Arch_Intervention_230609.shp Surveyed interventions through features – post-ex. Only the edges of the slots are surveyed. INT Arch_stones_120809.shp Extracted from the Archaeological_features layer – where stones have been surveyed individually. Archaeological_features_250709.shp Current Features layer. Contains all archaeology, except for that archived due to being on a higher level or voided. FEP Bulk_Samples_290609.shp Current total of bulk samples taken. BS Dendro_samples_050809.shp Dendrochronology samples as surveyed. DEND Deposit_230709.shp Edge of deposits. DEP DP_P_230709.shp Plan – Drawing Points. Levels on ground surface. DP P DP_S_260609.shp Section – Drawing Points. Levels on ground surface. DP S Feature_levels_300609.shp Levels with context numbers taken on top of each feature. CTXTLVL Haul_Road_polygon.shp Haul Road as surveyed. ILOE_300609c.shp Current Internal Limit of Excavation – dated. “Internal Limit of Excavation” in GIS. ILOE ILOE_old_300609.shp Cropped and old extents of the Internal Limit of Excavation Levels_General.shp 52
Levels surveyed for other purposes than those listed below. LVL Modern_features_300609.shp Modern features, such as field-drains and trackways. MOD Monolith_240709.shp Monoliths as surveyed by location – centrepoint MONO Site_boundary_LOE_100609b.shp Extreme external limit of site - “Limit of Excavation” in GIS. LOE
Metadata Matrices – useful examples for data maintenance a) GIS:
Appendix 3: Drawing of Plans Use these rules to plan features and to explain the planning of features to others, ensuring that the plans produced by fieldwork staff are all drawn to the same standard of quality! gvSIG requires at least three reference points per plan in order for it to be georeferenced (see p. 45). Georeferencing of plans works best with four points, evenly spaced around the feature and measured accurately on the plan.
Survey and GIS Manual for GPS (Leica GX1230) - the OA Library
Survey and GIS Manual for GPS (Leica GX1230) Second Edition
Anna Kathrin Hodgkinson
Protocols for Setting up the...
User Manual VJOY is Chinese leading manufacture in car safety & security with over 10 years of development and production experience include GPS tracker, vehicle tracking solution, personal position locator and spy GPS tracking device.
Personal safety device gps Mini vehicle GPS Tracker with Real Time Tracking by GPS & LBS Locate. US ...
life, please read these instructions before using your Swami 5000. Warranty / Return Policy. The SWAMI 5000 is warranted to be free from defects for up to (1) ...
The most advanced technology of GPS and AGPS dual positioning. The waterproof level achieve IPX - 6. 2. Applications. ○ Vehicle rental / Fleet management etc. ○ Outdoor sports. ○ Protect children / elder/ Asset/ pet and so on. ○ Provide peace-of-mind
CorvusGPS.com's online GPS Fleet Tracking software is web based, you don't need to install anything: a web browser and an internet connection is all you need. All of your data is stored in a secure cloud. Our mapping app can be installed on tablets a
GPS WATCH Q50 MANUAL. Please read the instruction of the smart watch carefully before using, The color is subject to the actual product. I. Quick Start Guide:.
G USB. H Format Switch. I MicroSD card. J Memory Status. K Door Lock. L Power Button. M Battery Status. N Update Button (hidden). Contour GPS User Manual.
四． Attentions. 1. Insert a cell phone SIM card to the device. ○Make sure the SIM card has opened the GPRS function, and the need set up the. APN (ask the operator for the APN); otherwise the tracker will not work normally. ○Make sure the SIM card can
and Basic GPS Mapping Techniques. Manual. 1. Introduction. This manual is intended to provide users with a basic understanding of a Garmin eTrex GPS ...
No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any ... GARMIN, GPS II, Personal Navigator, AutoLocate, TracBack, and MultiTrac8 are ...
Page 1. User Manual. Page 2. GPS Log Book â User Manual www.gpslogbook.com. Page 1 of 26. Table of Contents. 1 Introduction .
it was found that the geovisualization facilities included in CommonGIS were too unusual ... suitable methods but also automatically generates thematic maps. ... transformable maps suitable for visual exploration of spatial data. Cartographic represe
GT001 user manual. Updated2017-02-10 15:28:23. Click to download. 分享到：. PreviousGT003 user manual; NextNo Information. 返回顶部. HLXT 2016-2026 ICP888888. Laowei Industrial Zone,Longhua,Shenzhen518109. Tel：0755-28146497 QQ:372756914. ;. 0755-28146497. 周一
GPS Tracker Users Manual details for FCC ID 2AH6ZEV-07S made by SHENZHEN EVIEW TECHNOLOGY CO.LTD. Document Includes User Manual GPS & GSM VEHICLE TRACKING SYSTEM.
Apr 12, 2016 - GPS Vehicle tracker. (GPS+GSM+SMS/GPRS). GT06 User Manual. (Version 3.2). Thank you for purchasing the tracker. This manual shows how to operate the device smoothly and correctly. Make sure to read this manual carefully before using th
survey instrument to measure job training satisfaction and overall job satisfaction. ... The job satisfaction aspects of this survey originate, in part, from Paul ...
NJIT will enter into a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the ... Introduction to Computer Science (CS 113â3 credits) ... Tuition is $115 per credit.
Dec 31, 1995 - Medieninhaber, Herausgeber und Verleger: Verlag der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, A-1031 Wien, Postfach 127,. Rasumofskygasse 23, Austria. Verlagsort und Gerichtsstand ist Wien. Ziel der "Berichte der Geologischen Bundesanstalt" ist die
136 - 141 Factors Associated with Delayed Diagnosis Among Tuberculosis Patient in Kebumen District. Edwin Sovvan Aritonang, Ning Rintiswati, Riris Andono Ahmad. 142 - 148 Effication Test of ..... 0402A5L48_Interim_ Report1.pdf. 14. Astutik S, Rahayud
Feb 23, 2011 - A thematic map has a table of contents that allows the reader to add layers of information to a ... of MasterMap Download, the academic interface for Ordnance Survey's MasterMap data, which faculty helped ..... cartography and geovisua