1 Introduction The Underwater GPS is a robust and reliable acoustic positioning system with a range of 100m. The purpose of the system is to give a live GPS position of ROVs, surface-supplied divers and other moving objects below the water surface.
Illustration 1: Screenshot of ROV position The Underwater GPS system is based on Short Baseline (SBL) acoustic positioning. The Locator is placed on a ROV or diver and functions as a beacon that sends out an acoustic pulse. Near the surface, there are four receiver hydrophones lowered into the water. The receivers listen for the pulse from the locator. Time-ofarrival to each receiver is used to calculate the Locator’s position. SBL systems, compared to the USBL systems, have the advantage of working well in shallow water and noisy acoustic environments, such as in a fish cage. Once the position is known relative to the receivers, the global position can be found by adding that to the position obtained by a GPS receiver. The Underwater GPS system does that part internally so that it can provide the actual global position of the ROV as it's output.
3 Hardware Setup 3.1 Network At power-up, the Master-D1 reads the DIP-switch settings. The network mode depends on the GP0 and GP1 position.
Static IP 192.168.2.94
Static IP 10.11.12.94
DHCP client example mode
DHCP Server, 192.168.0.1
The BS0 and BS1 positions on the dip switch shall both be ON. These boot-select pins are used in factory programming only. Use the supplied Ethernet cable to connect the Underwater GPS to a network switch or directly into the host computer.
3.2 Acoustics •
Connect the four Receiver-D1 cables to channel 1 to 4 on the housing, ref chapter 2.2
If using the Locator-D1, connect this to the D1 connector on the housing, ref chapter 2.2
If using the Locator-A1, connect this to the A1 connector on the housing, ref chapter 2.2
3.4 Locators The Underwater GPS can be used with two different types of Locators, Locator-A1 and Locator-D1. See comparison table bellow.
Retrofit ROV or compressed diving
Full ROV integration
3x twisted pair (RX, TX and power)
1x twisted pair (TX)
No depth sensor. The ROV control system must write the ROV depth using the API to the Master-D1 electronics.
3.5 Reference Systems In order to calculate the absolute position of the Locator we need to define two reference systems, the acoustic and the global reference system. The global reference system is defined by latitude and longitude and is the reference system used by the GPS and in maps.
The acoustic reference system (the x and y axis) is defined by the orientation of the housing. The housing is by definition located in origin (x=0, y=0). A label on top of the lid indicates the x-y coordinate system. The position of the receivers and the search area are specified in the Acoustic reference system.
3.6 Guidelines You can in principle place the receivers at any location within 100m from the origin of the acoustic reference system. In order to ensure the best performance, you should follow a few guidelines:
Try to place the receivers so they all have a free line-of-sight to the locator.
The system performs better when there is a large distance between the receivers. More separation is better.
There should be maximum 100m from any receiver to the locator
Place the receivers at a few meters depth. Near the surface there are typically small air bubbles caused by waves. These small air bubbles attenuate the acoustic signal and can reduce the system performance.
Limit search area
You will get a better position if you help the search algorithm to narrow the search area. Limit the search range setting to the area where the Locator is expected to be.
The Receivers have less sensitivity in backward direction (where cable enters). Also, the Locator has less acoustic gain in the direction of the cable entry.
Add some weight to the receivers so they hang straight down in the water
3.7 Boat Example The illustration bellow shows a typical receiver configuration when installed on a boat. The receivers are hanging from the side of the boat, one in each corner. The depth of the receivers are typically 2-4m, deep enough to get below the hull and get free line-of-sight to the Locator. Notice how the housing defines the origin and coordinate system of the acoustic reference system.
3.8 GPS The on-board GPS module is used to position the system in a global reference system. An external antenna with integrated amplifier can be used to improve GPS reception.
1 Configuration of the receiver position. Set the coordinates (x,y,depth) of all four receivers [meters]. The depth is always a positive number.
2 The visualization sector gives a graphical representation of the receiver positions. This makes it easier to verify that the configuration is correct. 3 Configuration of the active search range. Set the maximum/minimum of the x and y search area. To improve the quality of the position estimation it is a good idea to define a small search area and leave out “impossible” position sectors. NB: The image is from an old GUI release. The following four parameters can be adjusted in newer GUIs: xmin, xmax, ymin and ymax.
4 Setting of the acoustic frequency. This can be used in case other acoustic devices operate in the area, like sonars, echo sounders and modems. In case of interference, change the carrier frequency.
5 The system configuration is stored on the server. Press “Apply” to save current configuration. Press “Load from server” to load previously saved configuration. 6 Configuration of the master (housing) position. This configuration selects how to map the two reference systems, the Global and the Acoustic reference system. There are three sources of this • On-board GPS. With this setting the global position of the master is based on the on-board GPS. • Static. The latitude and longitude are static numbers and configured directly in GUI. • External. The GPS position in provided through the API, typically from the boat navigation system. 7 Configuration of the orientation of the master 8 Locator selection. When using Locator-A1, the depth must be written to the system. This is done via the HTTP interface described in the Open API Specification (OAS)
4.4 API The Underwater GPS comes with an easy-to-use API. This API uses a HTTP-based scheme to interact with the system. Through the API the user can among others •
set configuration settings
read acoustic and global position data
read GPS and IMU raw data
SWAGGER is used for API documentation. See http://184.108.40.206:8000/swagger/
A SW update package (.wlup) includes all files required to update the system. SW updates will be made available on waterlinked.com. Some SW updates also requires an update of the low-level FPGA image. The FPGA image is encrypted with a unique key. To generate a new FPGA image for your board, Water Linked needs to know the Chip ID of your bard. The Chip ID can be found in the About tab of the GUI.
Power off the system
Set Master-D1 to fixed IP “192.168.2.94”
Set the IP on your own computer to be on the same sub-net
Power up the system while at the same time keeping the GP0 pin on the GPIO connector grounded
After the system has booted (20 seconds), remove the grounding of GP0.
Go to web GUI http://192.168.2.94
Click “Browse file” and select correct <>.wlup file
Wait for update process to complete
When the update process is complete and successful, the system will automatically reboot to standard mode
6 Diagnostics 6.1 D1 interface Make sure the LED is ON for all D1 interfaces that are connected. The digital D1 interfaces all have a separate LED to show if the communication link is in lock. When a Receiver-D1 or Locator-D1 cable is connected to the master board, the corresponding LED should be continuously ON. The silkscreen marking of the channel LEDs on the PCB are 0-indexed. The channel labels on the housing are 1-index. We thus get following LED channel mapping: Interface
Receiver, channel 1
Receiver, channel 2
Receiver, channel 3
Receiver, channel 4
The LED on the Locator-A1 interface is not in use.
6.2 WEB diagnostics Verify receiver signal strength in the diagnostic page on the web GUI. Set your browser to 192.168.2.94/#/diagnostic. This view will show the signal strength from all receivers. It should look something like
In the diagnostic plot we should see the signal from all 4 receivers. The signals should be above the noise floor. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Title User Manual Number W-DN-17002-2
2017-08-04 20 of 21
6.3 Interference Acoustic interference can be observed in the diagnostic plot. Echo sounders from nearby boats typically appears like burst noise.
In case of interference from other acoustic sources, use the GUI to change the carrier frequency of the system.
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